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Current situation and challenge of registry in China

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第3期   页码 294-299 doi: 10.1007/s11684-014-0355-x

摘要:

Increasing emphasis has been placed on registries for an organized system used in developing clinical research to improve health care. China has sufficient data that can be applied broadly, but the heterogeneity and irregularity of registries limit their applicability. This article aims to describe the status of registries in China and the related challenges. Patient registries for observational studies were retrieved from the International Clinical Trials Registry to quantitatively evaluate the number of comparatively high-quality registries in China. A literature search was also performed to provide support and updates. A total of 64 patient registries were retrieved from ClinicalTrials.gov using disease, product, and health service as criteria. The sample sizes ranged from 15 to 30 400, with only 12 registries marked as completed. This article describes and compares the detailed information in many aspects. The efficient use of registries has already made considerable progress in China; however, registries still require standardization, high-quality transition, and coordinated development.

关键词: observational study     Chinese     registry study     patient registries    

中国城镇化的进展与巨大挑战 Views & Comments

徐匡迪

《工程(英文)》 2016年 第2卷 第1期   页码 26-28 doi: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.01.029

Current challenge and perspective of PGM-free cathode catalysts for PEM fuel cells

Gang WU

《能源前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第3期   页码 286-298 doi: 10.1007/s11708-017-0477-3

摘要: To significantly reduce the cost of proton exchange membrane fuel cells, platinum-group metal (PGM)-free cathode catalysts are highly desirable. Current M-N-C (M: Fe, Co or Mn) catalysts are considered the most promising due to their encouraging performance. The challenge thus has been their stability under acidic conditions, which has hindered their use for any practical applications. In this review, based on the author’s research experience in the field for more than 10 years, current challenges and possible solutions to overcome these problems were discussed. The current Edisonian approach (i.e., trial and error) to developing PGM-free catalysts has been ineffective in achieving revolutionary breakthroughs. Novel synthesis techniques based on a more methodological approach will enable atomic control and allow us to achieve optimal electronic and geometric structures for active sites uniformly dispersed within the 3D architectures. Structural and chemical controlled precursors such as metal-organic frameworks are highly desirable for making catalysts with an increased density of active sites and strengthening local bonding structures among N, C and metals. Advanced electrochemical and physical characterization, such as electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy should be combined with first principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations to fully elucidate the active site structures.

关键词: oxygen reduction     fuel cells     cathode     nonprecious metal catalysts     carbon nanocomposites    

An old issue and a new challenge for nuclear reactor safety

F. D’AURIA

《能源前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第4期   页码 854-859 doi: 10.1007/s11708-021-0729-0

摘要: Nuclear reactor safety (NRS) and the branch accident analysis (AA) constitute proven technologies: these are based on, among the other things, long lasting research and operational experience in the area of water cooled nuclear reactors (WCNR). Large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) has been, so far, the orienting scenario within AA and a basis for the design of reactors. An incomplete vision for those technologies during the last few years is as follows: Progress in fundamentals was stagnant, namely in those countries where the WCNR were designed. Weaknesses became evident, noticeably in relation to nuclear fuel under high burn-up. Best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) techniques were perfected and available for application. Electronic and informatics systems were in extensive use and their impact in case of accident becomes more and more un-checked (however, quite irrelevant in case of LBLOCA). The time delay between technological discoveries and applications was becoming longer. The present paper deals with the LBLOCA that is inserted into the above context. Key conclusion is that regulations need suitable modification, rather than lowering the importance and the role of LBLOCA. Moreover, strengths of emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and containment need a tight link.

关键词: large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA)     nuclear reactor safety (NRS)     licensing perspectives     basis for design of water cooled nuclear reactors (WCNR)    

Strategic Project Management to Use the Grand Challenge Scholars Program to Address Urban Infrastructure

David A. Wyrick,Warren Myers

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2016年 第3卷 第3期   页码 203-205 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2016046

摘要: Throughout the world, infrastructure to support cities is critical to support sustainable and responsible economic development. This can include new infrastructure projects in the case of growing areas. It can also include the renewal and upgrading of existing infrastructure in areas that have been inhabited and already developed. Infrastructure includes roads, bridges and transportation systems; power grids and energy service; internet and telecommunications; and water and sewer services. This development can be part of a system of systems, in which government, industries, and universities can contribute knowledge, skills, and abilities. This paper will investigate the strategic project management taken by one university to provide an academic experience that will prepare engineering students to address several of the Grand Engineering Challenges of the 21st Century, as identified by the US National Academy of Engineering. The challenges relating to energy, water, information, and urban infrastructure can be approached using the functions of teaching, research, and service. By approaching the challenges strategically, resources of faculty time, student effort and laboratory facilities can be leveraged to achieve greater results. This case study will describe the efforts and results to date and identify opportunities for future growth.

关键词: Grand Challenges     urban infrastructure development     engineering management     system of systems     strategic management     engineering management case study    

Molecular targeted therapy of gynecological malignant tumors: the development and challenge, from laboratory

Pengming SUN PhD, MD , Jalid SEHOULI PhD, MD , Lihui WEI BM ,

《医学前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第3期   页码 256-264 doi: 10.1007/s11684-009-0052-3

摘要: More and more molecular drugs based on targeted therapy have been utilized in the treatment of gynecologic cancer, especially in ovarian cancer. In this article, we systematically review the current targeted therapeutic trials running in clinic. Large, randomized trials have been conducted in the treatment of ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer and cervical cancer by using small molecule, antisense, mutational gene as well as antibodies. Other planned or ongoing trials currentlytargeted at molecular markers which may play important roles in gynecological carcinogenesis andprogression suggest that combination chemotherapy with molecular targeted therapy will ultimately be an importantoption.

关键词: target therapy     gynecologic malignant tumors     clinical trail     molecular medicine    

新冠病毒变异株——新型mRNA疫苗能否经受挑战?

Jennifer Welsh

《工程(英文)》 2021年 第7卷 第6期   页码 712-714 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2021.04.005

组织再生:梦想、希望和挑战

付小兵

《中国工程科学》 2009年 第11卷 第10期   页码 122-128

摘要:

组织再生是21世纪生物学和医学领域研究的重点和热点。在回顾再生医学研究历史的基础上,概要介绍了组织再生所涉及的关键科学问题、重大需求以及部分已经取得的重要进展,并对将来的发展进行了展望。

关键词: 损伤     组织     修复     再生    

电动汽车蓬勃发展,电池回收面临挑战

Sean O’Neill

《工程(英文)》 2021年 第7卷 第12期   页码 1657-1660 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2021.11.009

Aerodynamic challenges in span length of suspension bridges

XIANG Haifan, GE Yaojun

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第2期   页码 153-162 doi: 10.1007/s11709-007-0016-0

摘要: The potential requirement of extreme bridge spans is firstly discussed according to horizontal clearances for navigation and economical construction of deep-water foundation. To ensure the technological feasibility of suspension bridges with longer spans, the static estimation of feasible span length is then made based on current material strength and weight of cables and deck. After the performances of the countermeasures for raising the aerodynamic stability are reviewed, a trial design of a 5 000 m suspension bridge, which is estimated as a reasonable limitation of span length, is finally conducted to respond to the tomorrow s challenge in span length of suspension bridges with the particular aspects, including dynamic stiffness, aerodynamic flutter and aerostatic stability.

关键词: requirement     reasonable limitation     challenge     particular     economical construction    

21世纪计算与信息技术的挑战

Wm. A. Wulf

《中国工程科学》 2000年 第2卷 第10期   页码 9-12

Immunological effects of nano-enabled hyperthermia for solid tumors: opportunity and challenge

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第3期   页码 333-344 doi: 10.1007/s11705-021-2059-5

摘要: Compared to conventional hyperthermia that is limited by low selectivity and severe side effects, nano-enabled hyperthermia yields great potentials to tackle these limitations for cancer treatment. Another major advance is the observation of immunological responses associated with nano-enabled hyperthermia, which introduces a new avenue, allowing a potential paradigm shift from the acutely effective and cytotoxicity-centric response to the next-phase discovery, i.e., long-lasting and/or systemic anti-tumor immunity. This perspective first discusses the temperature-gradient and the spatially-structured immunological landscape in solid tumors receiving nano-enabled hyperthermia. This includes the discussion about underlying mechanism such as immunogenic cell death, which initiates a profound immunological chain reaction. In order to propagate the immune activation as a viable therapeutic principle, we further discussed the tumor type-specific complexity in the immunological tumor microenvironment, including the creative design of nano-enabled combination therapy to synergize with nano-enabled hyperthermia.

关键词: nano-enabled hyperthermia     immunogenic cell death     heterogeneous immunological landscape     tumor microenvironment    

中国近海油气勘探进展

朱伟林

《中国工程科学》 2010年 第12卷 第5期   页码 18-24

摘要:

近年来,中国近海的油气勘探坚持以寻找大中型油气田为指导思想,以区域研究为基础,以科学合理部署为保证,针对中国近海独特的油气地质特征,通过创新认识和技术进步,坚持走高效勘探之路,取得了丰硕成果,新发现储量屡创历史新高,步入了历史上最好时期。然而,随着勘探程度的提高和勘探领域的拓展,中国近海油气勘探也面临越来越多的挑战。

关键词: 中国近海     大中型油气田     高效勘探     挑战    

WATER USE IN HUMAN CIVILIZATIONS: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF A PERPETUAL SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL CHALLENGE

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 512-524 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE -2021393

摘要:

Settlement patterns and social structures have been shaped by access to water since the onset of human societies. This review covers historical and recent examples from Cambodia, Central Asia, India, Latin America and the Arabian Peninsula to analyze the role of water resources in determining the rise and collapse of civilizations. Over recent decades increasing globalization and concomitant possibilities to externalize water needs as virtual water have obscured global dependence on water resources via telecoupling, but rapid urbanization brings it now back to the political agenda. It is foremost in the urban arena of poorer countries where competing claims for water increasingly lead to scale-transcendent conflicts about ecosystem services. Solutions to the dilemma will require broad stakeholder-based agreements on water use taking into account the available data on water resources, their current and potential use efficiency, recycling of water after effective treatment, and social-ecological approaches of improved governance and conflict resolution.

 

关键词: agroecology     historical water use     water footprint     water governance     urbanization    

美国国防部先进研究项目局举办的机器人大挑战赛的参与和崎岖地面行走的滑雪式步态 Article

王宏飞, 李诗濛, 郑元芳

《工程(英文)》 2015年 第1卷 第1期   页码 36-45 doi: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015006

摘要:

本文简要介绍了美国国防部先进研究项目局举办的机器人大挑战赛的历史,并将关注的焦点放在了2012机器人挑战赛上。作为该挑战赛DRC-HUBO队的成员,我们为完成崎岖地面的任务提出了不同的方法,如增大脚踏板、转换成四足行走等。同时,本文还介绍了一种帮助提高仿人机器人运动稳定性的新步态——滑雪式步态。本文对该步态的稳定性进行了分析,并利用稳定度裕量从两种备选的步进顺序(爬行-1和爬行-2)中进行选择。接下来,本文对滑雪式步态中冗余的闭链系统进行力/力矩分析,通过最小化总耗能量来确定关节力矩。根据稳定性分析和力/力矩分析,我们设计了一种手杖长度,使其可以支撑HUBO2仿人机器人平台稳定地实现爬行-2步态。最后,通过将本文的试验结果和两足步行进行对比,验证了滑雪式步态的可行性。同时,介绍了我队在该机器人挑战赛上的表现。

关键词: 仿人机器人     美国国防部先进研究项目局举办的机器人大挑战赛(DRC)     崎岖地面行走     滑雪式步态    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Current situation and challenge of registry in China

null

期刊论文

中国城镇化的进展与巨大挑战

徐匡迪

期刊论文

Current challenge and perspective of PGM-free cathode catalysts for PEM fuel cells

Gang WU

期刊论文

An old issue and a new challenge for nuclear reactor safety

F. D’AURIA

期刊论文

Strategic Project Management to Use the Grand Challenge Scholars Program to Address Urban Infrastructure

David A. Wyrick,Warren Myers

期刊论文

Molecular targeted therapy of gynecological malignant tumors: the development and challenge, from laboratory

Pengming SUN PhD, MD , Jalid SEHOULI PhD, MD , Lihui WEI BM ,

期刊论文

新冠病毒变异株——新型mRNA疫苗能否经受挑战?

Jennifer Welsh

期刊论文

组织再生:梦想、希望和挑战

付小兵

期刊论文

电动汽车蓬勃发展,电池回收面临挑战

Sean O’Neill

期刊论文

Aerodynamic challenges in span length of suspension bridges

XIANG Haifan, GE Yaojun

期刊论文

21世纪计算与信息技术的挑战

Wm. A. Wulf

期刊论文

Immunological effects of nano-enabled hyperthermia for solid tumors: opportunity and challenge

期刊论文

中国近海油气勘探进展

朱伟林

期刊论文

WATER USE IN HUMAN CIVILIZATIONS: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF A PERPETUAL SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL CHALLENGE

期刊论文

美国国防部先进研究项目局举办的机器人大挑战赛的参与和崎岖地面行走的滑雪式步态

王宏飞, 李诗濛, 郑元芳

期刊论文