So Jung Yang, Hun-Sung Kim, Kun-Ho Yoon
《医学前沿（英文）》 2018年 第12卷 第6期 页码 707-716 doi: 10.1007/s11684-018-0660-x
Understanding obesity in children is crucial because it can lead to adulthood obesity and result in fatal chronic diseases. Distinctive factors associated with obesity in adults have been described, but distinctive factors related to children remain unclear. We analyzed the correlation between the percentage of body mass index and lifestyle habits by conducting surveys on physical, nutritional, and psychological factors, and we used annual physical examination data to compare different traits among elementary school students (n = 197) and middle school students (n = 461). Our study revealed that the computing hours in elementary school students with overweight and obesity were significantly correlated with the percentage of body mass index (r = 0.29 on school days and r = 0.35 on days off, all P<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found (all P>0.05) in the computing hours of middle school students with overweight and obesity. Childhood obesity can cause depression and reduce children’s quality of life because of their distorted body perception. In conclusion, physical factors directly affecting childhood obesity and psychological and environmental factors surrounding a child should be considered.
《医学前沿（英文）》 doi: 10.1007/s11684-023-1003-0
《医学前沿（英文）》 2015年 第9卷 第1期 页码 1-9 doi: 10.1007/s11684-015-0381-3
With the cure rate of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) approaching 90%, further improvement in the treatment outcome and quality of life of patients will require better understanding of the mechanisms of drug resistance, identifying new leukemic cell genetic lesions that are amendable to available target therapy, and optimizing treatment based on host pharmacodynamics and pharmacogenomics. Deeper characterization of leukemic cell genetic abnormalities has discovered new subtypes of leukemia such as early T-cell precursor ALL and Philadelphia chromosome-like ALL, and identified many genomic alterations that have diagnostic, prognostic, or therapeutic implications. In this regard, several novel fusion transcripts are responsive to ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors and potentially to JAK inhibitors. Genome-wide analyses have also unraveled the role of inherited cancer predisposing genes and small nucleotide polymorphisms of several genes in the development of childhood ALL. These advances promise to lead to more sophisticated personalized treatment strategies in the near future.
《医学前沿（英文）》 2022年 第16卷 第1期 页码 17-24 doi: 10.1007/s11684-021-0873-2
《医学前沿（英文）》 2015年 第9卷 第2期 页码 139-145 doi: 10.1007/s11684-015-0377-z
In obesity, chronic inflammation is believed to induce insulin resistance and impairs adipose tissue function. Although this view is supported by a large body of literature, it has been challenged by growing evidence that pro-inflammatory cytokines may favor insulin sensitivity through induction of energy expenditure. In this review article, interleukin 15 (IL-15) is used as a new example to explain the beneficial effects of the pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-15 is secreted by multiple types of cells including macrophages, neutrophils and skeletal muscle cells. IL-15 expression is induced in immune cells by endotoxin and in muscle cells by physical exercise. Its transcription is induced by transcription factor NF-κB. IL-15 binds to its receptor that contains three different subunits (α, β and γ) to activate JAK/STAT, PI3K/Akt, IKK/NF-κB and JNK/AP1 pathways in cells. In the regulation of metabolism, IL-15 reduces weight gain without inhibiting food intake in rodents. IL-15 suppresses lipogenesis, stimulates brown fat function, improves insulin sensitivity through weight loss and energy expenditure. In human, circulating IL-15 is negatively associated with body weight. In the immune system, IL-15 stimulates proliferation and differentiation of T cells, NK cells, monocytes and neutrophils. In the anti-obesity effects of IL-15, T cells and NK cells are not required, but leptin receptor is required. In summary, evidence from human and rodents supports that the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-15 may enhance energy expenditure to protect the body from obesity and type 2 diabetes. The mechanism of IL-15 action remains to be fully uncovered in the regulation of energy expenditure.
《医学前沿（英文）》 2012年 第6卷 第4期 页码 416-420 doi: 10.1007/s11684-012-0224-4
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia includes T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). In children, T-ALL usually has a worse prognosis than B-ALL, although childhood T-ALL prognoses have improved remarkably. The varying outcomes among T-ALL cases suggest that an unrecognized biological heterogeneity may contribute to chemo-resistance. Deep exploration of T-lymphocyte development in recent years has found a subgroup of patients with a phenotype that resembles early T-cell precursor, which confers a much poorer prognosis than any other form of T-ALL. This novel subtype of T-ALL was called early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL). Flow cytometry data from T-ALL patients enrolled in Shanghai Children’s Medical Center between July 2002 and October 2010 were assessed according to Dr. Campana’s protocol. Among total 89 T-ALL cases, 74 cases had enough immunophenotype data available to differentiate between ETP (CD1a-, CD8-, CD5dim, at least one marker of stem cell or myeloid lineage) and non-ETP. From these 74 subjects, 12 ETP-ALL cases (16.2%) were identified. The event-free survival (EFS) rate at 66.8 months was 11.1%±10.1% for ETP-ALL and 57.6%±5.6% for non-ETP-ALL (P=0.003). The overall survival rates were 13.3%±11.0% for ETP-ALL and 64.7%±6.3% for non-ETP-ALL (P=0.002). Our findings demonstrate that early T-cell precursor leukemia is a very high-risk subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with poor prognosis.
《医学前沿（英文）》 doi: 10.1007/s11684-023-1023-9
Tiange Wang, Min Xu, Yufang Bi, Guang Ning
《医学前沿（英文）》 2018年 第12卷 第6期 页码 601-607 doi: 10.1007/s11684-018-0648-6
The incidence of obesity has been rapidly increasing, and this condition has become a major public health threat. A substantial shift in environmental factors and lifestyle, such as unhealthy diet, is among the major driving forces of the global obesity pandemic. Longitudinal studies and randomized intervention trials have shown that genetic susceptibility to obesity may interact with dietary factors in relation to the body mass index and risk of obesity. This review summarized data from recent longitudinal studies and intervention studies on variations and diets and discussed the challenges and future prospects related to this area and public health implications.
《医学前沿（英文）》 2015年 第9卷 第2期 页码 146-161 doi: 10.1007/s11684-014-0373-8
Obesity prevalence has increased in recent years. Lifestyle change fuels obesity, but genetic factors cause more than 50% of average variations in obesity. The advent of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has hastened the progress of polygenic obesity research. As of this writing, more than 73 obesity susceptibility loci have been identified in ethnic groups through GWAS. The identified loci explain only 2% to 4% of obesity heritability, thereby indicating that a large proportion of loci remain undiscovered. Thus, the next step is to identify and confirm novel loci, which may exhibit smaller effects and lower allele frequencies than established loci. However, achieving these tasks has been difficult for researchers. GWAS help researchers discover the causal loci. Moreover, numerous biological studies have been performed on the polygenic effects on obesity, such as studies on fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO), but the role of these polygenic effects in the mechanism of obesity remains unclear. Thus, obesity-causing variations should be identified, and insights into the biology of polygenic effects on obesity are needed.
《医学前沿（英文）》 2021年 第15卷 第3期 页码 372-382 doi: 10.1007/s11684-021-0862-5
Eun Young Lee, Kun-Ho Yoon
《医学前沿（英文）》 2018年 第12卷 第6期 页码 658-666 doi: 10.1007/s11684-018-0640-1
《医学前沿（英文）》 2015年 第9卷 第2期 页码 129-133 doi: 10.1007/s11684-015-0387-x
Sarah C. P. Williams,
《工程（英文）》 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2023.11.005
《医学前沿（英文）》 2017年 第11卷 第3期 页码 340-348 doi: 10.1007/s11684-017-0570-3
In light of the rapid increase in the number of obesity incidences worldwide, obesity has become an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG) is characterized by glomerulomegaly in the presence or absence of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis lesions. IgM and complement 3 (C3) nonspecifically deposit in lesions without immune-complex-type deposits during ORG immunofluorescence. ORG-associated glomerulomegaly and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis can superimpose on other renal pathologies. The mechanisms under ORG are complex, especially hemodynamic changes, inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and reduced functioning nephrons. These mechanisms synergize with obesity to induce end-stage renal disease. A slow increase of subnephrotic proteinuria (<3.5 g/d) is the most common clinical manifestation of ORG. Several treatment methods for ORG have been developed. Of these methods, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system blockade and weight loss are proven effective. Targeting mitochondria may offer a novel strategy for ORG therapy. Nevertheless, more research is needed to further understand ORG.
《医学前沿（英文）》 2017年 第11卷 第2期 页码 266-276 doi: 10.1007/s11684-017-0530-y
Childhood obesity and obesity-related metabolic complications are induced by a high-fat postnatal diet. The lack of a suitable animal model, however, remains a considerable challenge in obesity studies. In the current study, we provided high-fat diet (HFD) to dams during lactation and to pups after weaning. We also developed a novel model of C57BL/6J mouse pups with HFD-induced postnatal obesity. Results showed that feeding with HFD induces fat deposition and obesity in pups. Furthermore, HFD more potently increased the body weight (BW) of male than female pups. HFD-fed female pups were obese, underwent precocious puberty, and showed increased kisspeptin expression in the hypothalamus. However, parental obesity and precocious puberty exerted no synergistic effects on the HFD-induced postnatal weight gain and puberty onset of the pups. Interestingly, some HFD-fed litters with normal BW also exhibited precocious puberty. This finding suggested that diet composition but not BW triggers puberty onset. Our model suggests good construction validity of obesity and precocious puberty. Furthermore, our model can also be used to explore the mutual interactions between diet–induced postnatal childhood obesity and puberty.
标题 作者 时间 类型 操作
Analyzing the distinguishing factors that affect childhood obesity in South Korea
So Jung Yang, Hun-Sung Kim, Kun-Ho Yoon
Haploinsufficiency of Lipin3 leads to hypertriglyceridemia and obesity by disrupting the expression and
Beneficial metabolic activities of inflammatory cytokine interleukin 15 in obesity and type 2 diabetes
Early T-cell precursor leukemia: a subtype of high risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Interplay between diet and genetic susceptibility in obesity and related traits
Tiange Wang, Min Xu, Yufang Bi, Guang Ning
Advancement in genetic variants conferring obesity susceptibility from genome-wide association studies
Epidemic obesity in children and adolescents: risk factors and prevention
Eun Young Lee, Kun-Ho Yoon
Obesity-related glomerulopathy: pathogenesis, pathologic, clinical characteristics and treatment