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Essential training steps to achieving competency in the basic intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第1期   页码 123-128 doi: 10.1007/s11684-014-0366-7

摘要:

Guidelines for the intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) examination have defined a detailed standard for medical professionals, particularly anesthesiologists, on how a TEE exam should proceed. Over the years, TEE has gained substantial popularity and emerged as a preferred monitoring modality to aid in perioperative management and decision making during hemodynamic instability situations or critical care settings. TEE training pathways and practice guidelines have been well established in western countries and many regions of the world. However, TEE training and practice information for anesthesiologists are lacking in China. As innovative technologies develop, other educational models have emerged to aid in obtaining competency in basic TEE exam. Hence, establishing a consensus on the ideal TEE training approach for anesthesiologists in China is urgently needed. Developing an effective curriculum that can be incorporated into an anesthesiology resident’s overall training is also necessary to provide knowledge and skills toward competency in basic TEE exam. With evolving medical system reforms and increasing demands for intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring to accommodate surgical innovations, anesthesiology professionals are increasingly obliged to perform intraoperative TEE exams in their current and future practices. To overcome obstacles and achieve significant progress in using the TEE modality to help in intraoperative management and surgical decision making, publishing basic TEE training guidelines for China’s anesthesiologists is an important endeavor.

关键词: transesophageal echocardiography     guidelines     training     competency    

perioperative transesophageal echocardiography: should new guidelines exist for limited echocardiography training

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2012年 第6卷 第3期   页码 332-337 doi: 10.1007/s11684-012-0212-8

摘要:

Bedside limited echocardiography, or focused cardiac ultrasound, continues to gain popularity in many emergency rooms, intensive care units, and operating rooms as a rapid method of assessing unstable patients. Effective monitoring of cardiovascular function in conditions like cardiac arrest or near-arrest is the crucial step to guide successful resuscitative efforts. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has emerged as one of the preferred cardiac diagnostic and monitoring modalities in the intraoperative setting due to the fact that it is less invasive than many other monitors, is immediately accessible, and allows for continuous real-time monitoring of cardiac function. However, the minimum training requirements needed for the anesthesia provider to obtain the competency, knowledge, and skills for basic certification in perioperative TEE far exceed those developed for other medical specialties. We believe there is an urgent need to develop (1) practical guidelines for emergent perioperative TEE use for anesthesiologists and (2) a requisite educational curriculum to teach the basic skills necessary to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac arrest or near-arrest scenarios. The measures elucidated in this report summarize the efforts of the Department of Anesthesiology at the University of Florida in establishing the necessary steps to make this process not only practical, but accessible to all trainees. We hope that these collective efforts will provide more trainees the confidence in utilizing TEE to aid in establishing a diagnosis in critical situations.

关键词: transesophageal echocardiography     curriculum     competency training     hemodynamic instability    

面向可持续发展教育的工程科技人才需求特质与培养趋向研究

郭哲,徐立辉,王孙禺

《中国工程科学》 2022年 第24卷 第2期   页码 179-188 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2022.02.016

摘要:

从《21世纪议程》到《教育2030行动框架》,国际社会不断推进可持续发展教育,对现有教育体系进行整合重塑以取得创新突破;可持续发展教育理念在引领国际工程教育改革的同时,日益成为提升工程教育质量的重要选择。本文在梳理可持续发展教育理念历史演进的基础上,分析了支撑2030年可持续发展教育的工程科技人才需求特质,从基于可持续发展教育的培养目标与关键能力新要求、国际工程联盟毕业生素质和职业能力框架解析、我国工程教育改革实践3个方面展开研究;基于可持续发展教育理念,总结了我国工程科技人才培养在培养目标定位、培养过程设计和学生考核评价等方面面临的严峻挑战。研究认为,我国面向2030年可持续发展教育的行动策略应从注重顶层设计、发挥政策协同作用,加强国际合作、整合全球优质资源,优化专业布局、发挥专业集群优势,赋能课程教学、培养优秀工程人才,强化专业认证、完善质量标准体系5个方面着手进行,以期推进契合可持续发展目标的工程科技人才培养质量持续提升。 

关键词: 可持续发展教育     工程科技人才     需求特质     毕业生素质和专业能力框架     工程教育    

企业知识产权战略设计与核心竞争力

袁俊

《中国工程科学》 2004年 第6卷 第11期   页码 88-92

摘要:

实施知识产权战略设计,构建知识产权赢利模式,对增强企业核心竞争力,具有深远的战略意义;针对企业在知识产权保护方面存在的问题,提出相应对策和建议。

关键词: 知识产权     技术创新     核心竞争力    

Role of exercise training on insulin resistance and TNF-α in high-fat diet rats

Hui SUN MD, Xiuling DENG MM, Fangxi XIAO MD, Lulu CHEN MD, Huiqing LI MD,

《医学前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第4期   页码 403-407 doi: 10.1007/s11684-009-0071-0

摘要: This study investigated the effect of exercise training on insulin resistance and serum and adipose TNF-α in high-fat diet-induced insulin-resistant rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: normal control group (NC; =8) that accepted normal chow and high-fat diet group (HF; =22) that fed on high-fat diet to induce insulin resistance model. The HF group was randomly assigned to two subgroups after 18 weeks: sedentary group (SE; =10) and exercise training group (ET; =12) that performed swimming exercise training for 6 weeks, while both groups continued high-fat diet. Changes of body weight, lipid profile, and fasting plasma glucose and insulin were measured. The insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was calculated. Serum concentration of TNF-α was detected by ELISA. The expression of TNF-α mRNA and protein in adipose tissue was examined by using real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot, respectively. After 18 weeks, compared with the NC group, body weight, blood lipid, glucose, and insulin in the HF group were significantly elevated, while the ISI decreased obviously, which suggested that insulin resistance appeared in the HF group. After exercise training for 6 weeks, compared with the SE group, both ISI and serum TNF-α concentration in the ET group were decreased significantly; however, the expression levels of TNF-α mRNA and protein in adipose tissue increased by 27.5% and 20.5%, respectively. In conclusion, exercise training ameliorates insulin resistance. The reduction of the level of serum TNF-α and the increased expression of TNF-α in adipose tissue by exercise training may be involved in this mechanism.

关键词: exercise training     insulin resistance     tumor necrosis factor-α    

Yesterday, Today and Future of the Engineering Management Body of Knowledge

Hiral Shah,Walter Nowocin

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2015年 第2卷 第1期   页码 60-63 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2015009

摘要: Young engineers are often promoted to leadership roles such as a team leader or a manager within 3 to 6 years of graduating from an undergraduate degree in a technical area. To be competent and successful in their leadership role engineers need to update their engineering management knowledge and learn new skills. The purpose of engineering management body of knowledge (EMBOK) is to delineate the knowledge, skills, and competency areas that are applicable to the engineering management discipline. It basically answers the question, “What does it take to be an effective engineering manager?” The EMBOK is based on a validated study and can be used for curriculum development, certification exams, and professional development programs. This paper describes the 11 domains that are included in the EMBOK and discuss the future publication of the EMBOK Guide. American Society for Engineering Management (ASEM) offers two certification exams based on the EMBOK, Associate Engineering Manager (AEM) and Professional Engineering Manager (PEM).These certification exams can help an individual in the engineering management profession to show that they have kept up in the field and possess the necessary skills and competency to practice in the discipline. A detailed description of this certification program is included in this paper. The future of EMBOK and the certification program is also discussed.

关键词: body of knowledge     engineering management     certification exam     engineering manager     competency areas    

maize-based food-feed-energy systems to limited phosphate resources—a new Sino-German international research training

null

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第4期   页码 313-320 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019282

摘要:

Phosphate is supplied to agriculture by mining and fertilizer production, followed by different steps of phosphate utilization, including primary production, feed and food consumption, and conversion of biomass, with accumulation in soils, but little recycling and severe environmental losses. Phosphate is a limited essential nutrient, however, with very uneven distribution worldwide. Closing the cycle and reducing primary phosphate consumption are fundamental future challenges. Maize has a relatively high phosphate requirement. China and Germany together cover the whole range of maize production systems. The new Sino-German international research training group “Adaptation of Chinese and German maize-based food-feed-energy systems to limited phosphate resources” (AMAIZE-P) was initiated in 2018 as a joint venture of the China Agricultural University (Beijing, China) and the University of Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Germany). The interdisciplinary and complementary research is driven by the hypothesis that under phosphate limited conditions, high productivity and high phosphate use efficiency can be achieved simultaneously by adapting phosphate cycling and availability (sources) to the multipurpose phosphate demands (sinks) in maize-based food-feed-energy systems. The educational program for doctoral researchers in China and Germany includes joint block seminars, thematic field trips, case studies, methodological courses, doctoral researchers’ conferences, intercultural training sessions and personal training.

关键词: international research training group     limited resources     maize     phosphate    

The next step of community health construction: Training general practitioners and implementing health

Kan ZHANG MM, Wei DONG MM, Ying-Yao CHEN MD,

《医学前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第2期   页码 134-138 doi: 10.1007/s11684-010-0041-6

摘要: This article discusses the concept of health management and stresses that community health management should be the starting point of community health service, necessitating a paradigm shift from observing the treatment-oriented medical model to observing the prevention-and-health management-based medical model. Community health construction has entered a new phase, one which highlights the need to train general practitioners in practice-based life cycle health management. In addition, general practitioners should assume the mission of implementing community health management.

关键词: community health     general practitioners     health management    

maize-based food-feed-energy systems to limited phosphate resources—a new Sino-German international research training

null

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第4期   页码 443-444 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019288

我国全科医生培养现状与发展策略

刘颖,蒋国平,任菁菁

《中国工程科学》 2019年 第21卷 第2期   页码 74-78 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2019.02.005

摘要:

经过近30年的不断探索和实践,我国全科医生队伍建设取得了一定的进展,初步建立了以“5+3”为主、“3+2”为辅的全科医生培养模式,但我国仍面临严重缺乏合格全科医生的情况。本文通过对我国全科医生培养现状的研究,了解到当前我国全科医生岗位缺乏吸引力,全科医生培养制度和体系不够完善,缺乏完善的过程考核机制,住培基地准入和再认证机制不完善,持续职业发展教育亟待规范。通过对国际上主要国家发展全科医生经验的回顾研究,建议我国应当切实提升全科医生待遇;以“岗位胜任力”为导向,建立完善的全科医生培训过程考核体系;统一全科医生住培基地准入条件,建立常态化基地评估认证机制;设置全科持续职业发展教育基地。

关键词: 全科医生     人才培养     岗位胜任力    

导弹特种装备与训练模拟系统研制

黄先祥,谢建,高钦和

《中国工程科学》 2001年 第3卷 第2期   页码 65-70

摘要:

导弹特种装备与模拟训练系统综合运用多学科先进技术,建立了数十个数学、物理和网络模型,研制出上百台仪器设备,实现了导弹全武器系统与发射全过程的模拟。简要介绍了系统的组成、功用和简要技术方案。对大型高可靠液压系统设计、自动调平与起竖的实现、导弹高精度定位、大型复杂电器系统电磁兼容设计等主要技术问题做了详细论述。

关键词: 导弹     训练模拟     液压系统     细分控制     电磁兼容    

基于连续扰动生成方法的可持续对抗训练 Research Article

林巍1,3,廖丽娟2

《信息与电子工程前沿(英文)》 2024年 第25卷 第4期   页码 527-539 doi: 10.1631/FITEE.2300474

摘要: 基于在线生成对抗性样本的对抗性训练在防御对抗性攻击和提高卷积神经网络(CNN)模型鲁棒性方面取得良好效果。然而,大多数现有对抗训练方法都致力于寻找强对抗例子迫使模型学习对抗数据分布,这不可避免地增加了大量计算开销并导致干净数据丢失。本文展示了在不同训练世代中渐进式地增强对抗样本本身的对抗强度能有效提高模型鲁棒性,适当的模型转换可以保持模型泛化性能,且这一转换过程的计算成本可忽略不计。因此,本文提出一种针对对抗训练的连续扰动生成方法(SPGAT),该方法通过在前一训练世代转移的对抗样本上添加扰动逐步增强对抗样本,并跨世代转换模型以提高对抗训练效率。实验表明,本文所提SPGAT方法既高效又有效;例如,所提方法计算时间为900分钟,标准对抗训练持续时间为4100分钟,对抗精度和干净样本精度性能提升分别超过7%和3%。在不同数据集上对SPGAT进行广泛评估,包括小规模MNIST、中等规模CIFAR-10和大规模CIFAR-100。实验结果表明,相比于目前最优方法,所提方法更有效。

关键词: 对抗训练;对抗攻击;随机权重平均;机器学习;模型的泛化    

应用型工程造价专业人才培养模式的探索与实践——以天津理工大学为例

尹贻林,白 娟

《中国工程科学》 2015年 第17卷 第1期   页码 114-119

摘要:

咨询行业的跨越式发展对工程造价专业人才的供给提出了新的要求,培养适用于市场需求的应用型人才是工程专业人才培养的首要任务。本文以天津理工大学为例,剖析应用型工程专业人才的素质特征,从教学体系构建,团队的培养和建设两方面,对应用型工程造价专业人才培养模式进行的构建进行系统的阐述,旨在为应用型工程造价专业人才的培养提供借鉴。

关键词: 应用型人才;工程造价专业;人才培养模式    

基于全局和单调递减鲁棒性策略的鲁棒神经网络训练方法 Research Article

梁震1,吴陶然2,3,刘万伟4,5,薛白2,杨文婧1,王戟1,庞征斌4

《信息与电子工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第24卷 第10期   页码 1375-1389 doi: 10.1631/FITEE.2300059

摘要: 深度神经网络的鲁棒性引发了学术界和工业界的高度关注,特别是在安全攸关领域。相比于验证神经网络的鲁棒性是否成立,本文关注点在于给定扰动前提下的鲁棒神经网络训练。现有的代表性训练方法——区间边界传播(IBP)和CROWN-IBP——在较小扰动下表现良好,但在较大扰动下性能显著下降,本文称之为衰退风险。具体来说,衰退风险是指与较小扰动情况相比,IBP系列训练方法在较大扰动情况下不能提供预期的鲁棒神经网络的现象。为了缓解这种衰退风险,我们提出一种全局的、单调递减的鲁棒神经网络训练策略,该策略在每个训练轮次考虑多个扰动(全局鲁棒性训练策略),并将其相应的鲁棒性损失以单调递减的权重进行组织(单调递减鲁棒性训练策略)。实验证明,所提策略在较小扰动下能够保持原有算法的性能,在较大扰动下的衰退风险得到很大程度改善。值得注意的是,与原有训练方法相比,所提训练策略保留了更多的模型准确度,这意味着该训练策略更加平衡地考虑了模型的鲁棒性和准确性。

关键词: 鲁棒神经网络;训练方法;衰退风险;全局鲁棒性训练;单调递减鲁棒性    

Hybrid embedding and joint training of stacked encoder for opinion question machine reading comprehension

Xiang-zhou Huang, Si-liang Tang, Yin Zhang, Bao-gang Wei,huangxiangzhou@zju.edu.cn,siliang@zju.edu.cn,yinzh@zju.edu.cn

《信息与电子工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第21卷 第9期   页码 1267-1412 doi: 10.1631/FITEE.1900571

摘要: Opinion question (MRC) requires a machine to answer questions by analyzing corresponding passages. Compared with traditional MRC tasks where the answer to every question is a segment of text in corresponding passages, opinion question MRC is more challenging because the answer to an opinion question may not appear in corresponding passages but needs to be deduced from multiple sentences. In this study, a novel framework based on is proposed to address such problems, in which a new hybrid embedding training method combining text features is used. Furthermore, extra attention and output layers which generate auxiliary losses are introduced to jointly train the stacked recurrent . To deal with imbalance of the dataset, irrelevancy of question and passage is used for . Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance. We are the biweekly champion in the opinion question MRC task in Artificial Intelligence Challenger 2018 (AIC2018).

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Essential training steps to achieving competency in the basic intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography

null

期刊论文

perioperative transesophageal echocardiography: should new guidelines exist for limited echocardiography training

null

期刊论文

面向可持续发展教育的工程科技人才需求特质与培养趋向研究

郭哲,徐立辉,王孙禺

期刊论文

企业知识产权战略设计与核心竞争力

袁俊

期刊论文

Role of exercise training on insulin resistance and TNF-α in high-fat diet rats

Hui SUN MD, Xiuling DENG MM, Fangxi XIAO MD, Lulu CHEN MD, Huiqing LI MD,

期刊论文

Yesterday, Today and Future of the Engineering Management Body of Knowledge

Hiral Shah,Walter Nowocin

期刊论文

maize-based food-feed-energy systems to limited phosphate resources—a new Sino-German international research training

null

期刊论文

The next step of community health construction: Training general practitioners and implementing health

Kan ZHANG MM, Wei DONG MM, Ying-Yao CHEN MD,

期刊论文

maize-based food-feed-energy systems to limited phosphate resources—a new Sino-German international research training

null

期刊论文

我国全科医生培养现状与发展策略

刘颖,蒋国平,任菁菁

期刊论文

导弹特种装备与训练模拟系统研制

黄先祥,谢建,高钦和

期刊论文

基于连续扰动生成方法的可持续对抗训练

林巍1,3,廖丽娟2

期刊论文

应用型工程造价专业人才培养模式的探索与实践——以天津理工大学为例

尹贻林,白 娟

期刊论文

基于全局和单调递减鲁棒性策略的鲁棒神经网络训练方法

梁震1,吴陶然2,3,刘万伟4,5,薛白2,杨文婧1,王戟1,庞征斌4

期刊论文

Hybrid embedding and joint training of stacked encoder for opinion question machine reading comprehension

Xiang-zhou Huang, Si-liang Tang, Yin Zhang, Bao-gang Wei,huangxiangzhou@zju.edu.cn,siliang@zju.edu.cn,yinzh@zju.edu.cn

期刊论文