资源类型

期刊论文 335

年份

2024 8

2023 18

2022 27

2021 34

2020 16

2019 19

2018 11

2017 24

2016 33

2015 14

2014 8

2013 3

2012 1

2011 3

2010 2

2009 4

2008 11

2007 4

2006 4

2005 9

展开 ︾

关键词

工程科技 8

钱学森 8

2035年 6

技术预见 6

系统科学 5

开放的复杂巨系统 4

思维科学 4

人工智能 3

关键技术 3

发展战略 3

工程 3

战略研究 3

“一带一路” 2

三峡工程 2

从定性到定量综合集成法 2

信息技术 2

农业信息技术 2

农业科技创新 2

创新 2

展开 ︾

检索范围:

排序: 展示方式:

Can crop science really help us to produce more better-quality food while reducing the world-wide environmental

William J. DAVIES, Susan E. WARD, Alan WILSON

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第7卷 第1期   页码 28-44 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019299

摘要:

This paper reviews recent developments in crop science that can be the basis of a revolution in the global food system but it is also emphasized that such a revolution requires more than changes in food production and supply. We must more effectively feed a growing global population with a healthy diet while also defining and delivering the kinds of sustainable food systems that will minimise damage to our planet. There are exciting new developments in crop production biology but much existing crop science can be exploited to increase yields with the aid of a knowledge exchange (KE) framework requiring the use of new technology now available to most people across the globe. We discuss novel approaches at both the plant and the crop level that will enhance nutrient and water productivity and we also outline ways in which energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can be reduced and labor shortages combatted. Exploitation of new biology and new engineering opportunities will require development of public-private partnerships and collaborations across the disciplines to allow us to move effectively from discovery science to practical application. It is also important that consumers contribute to the debate over proposed changes to food and farming and so effective KE mechanisms are required between all relevant communities.

关键词: food security     environmental sustainability     crop water use efficiency     crop science     diet and health    

作物种质资源学科的发展和展望

董玉琛

《中国工程科学》 2001年 第3卷 第1期   页码 1-5

摘要:

作物种质资源学科是20世纪发展起来的,瓦维洛夫的世界考察收集及其材料的表型多样性地理分布研究,奠定了作物种质资源学科的基础。自1958年美国建成世界第一座现代化种子库后,至今全世界的种质库已达1300多个,保存种质600×104份(另一文献为2500×104份)。现在的种质库分为长期、中期和短期三种,并在研究液态氮保存。无性繁殖作物采用种质圃或试管苗保存。由于育种工作对种质资源要求日益迫切,以及分子生物技术的发展,使作物种质资源研究进入了以评价鉴定为主的时代。应用分子遗传图谱不仅能鉴定质量性状,而且能发掘数量性状基因。中国原产的作物种质资源得到了较好的收集,1986年建成国家作物种质库(长期库),其中已存人各种作物的种质资源31×104份。并建有西宁复份保存库,22个中期库,30个国家种质圃和2个试管苗库。对保存的材料大多数进行了农艺性状、抗病虫害、抗逆性和品质初步鉴定,并建成了中国作物种质资源信息系统。随着生物技术的加速发展,应用高新技术千方百计在种质资源中发掘新基因将是21世纪作物种质资源学科发展的热点。因此,要妥善保护现有种质资源,不再使任何基因流失;并从国外引进新作物、新基因,以促进农业改制和作物生产的发展;大力从地方品种中,特别是野生种中发掘新基因,促进农业持续发展。

关键词: 作物种质资源     种质库     地方品种     野生种    

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON CROP PRODUCTION, PESTS AND PATHOGENS OF WHEAT AND RICE

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第1期   页码 4-18 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021432

摘要:

Ongoing climate change is expected to have impacts on crops, insect pests, and plant pathogens and poses considerable threats to sustainable food security. Existing reviews have summarized impacts of a changing climate on agriculture, but the majority of these are presented from an ecological point of view, and scant information is available on specific species in agricultural applications. This paper provides an overview of impacts of climate change on two staple crops, wheat and rice. First, the direct effects of climate change on crop growth, yield formation, and geographic distribution of wheat and rice are reviewed. Then, the effects of climate change on pests and pathogens related with wheat and rice, and their interactions with the crops are summarized. Finally, potential management strategies to mitigate the direct impacts of climate change on crops, and the indirect impacts on crops through pests and pathogens are outlined. The present overview aims to aid agriculture practitioners and researchers who are interested in wheat and rice to better understand climate change related impacts on the target species.

INTEGRATING CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS—TOWARDS AGRICULTURAL GREEN DEVELOPMENT

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第1期

LINKING CROP WATER PRODUCTIVITY TO SOIL PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 545-558 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE -2020349

摘要:

Agriculture uses a large proportion of global and regional water resources. Due to the rapid increase of population in the world, the increasing competition for water resources has led to an urgent need in increasing crop water productivity for agricultural sustainability. As the medium for crop growth, soils and their properties are important in affecting crop water productivity. This review examines the effects of soil physical, chemical, and microbial properties on crop water productivity and the quantitative relationships between them. A comprehensive view of these relationships may provide important insights for soil and water management in arable land for agriculture in the future.

 

关键词: crop water productivity     crop yield     soil chemical properties     soil microbial properties     soil physical properties     water consumption    

RESEARCH AND APPLICATION OF CROP PEST MONITORING AND EARLY WARNING TECHNOLOGY IN CHINA

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第1期   页码 19-36 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021411

摘要:

The importance of food security, especially in combating the problem of acute hunger, has been underscored as a key component of sustainable development. Considering the major challenge of rapidly increasing demands for both food security and safety, the management and control of major pests is urged to secure supplies of major agricultural products. However, owing to global climate change, biological invasion (e.g., fall armyworm), decreasing agricultural biodiversity, and other factors, a wide range of crop pest outbreaks are becoming more frequent and serious, making China, one of the world’s largest country in terms of agricultural production, one of the primary victims of crop yield loss and the largest pesticide consumer in the world. Nevertheless, the use of science and technology in monitoring and early warning of major crop pests provides better pest management and acts as a fundamental part of an integrated plant protection strategy to achieve the goal of sustainable development of agriculture. This review summarizes the most fundamental information on pest monitoring and early warning in China by documenting the developmental history of research and application, Chinese laws and regulations related to plant protection, and the National Monitoring and Early Warning System, with the purpose of presenting the Chinese model as an example of how to promote regional management of crop pests, especially of cross border pests such as fall armyworm and locust, by international cooperation across pest-related countries.

 

关键词: China / law / early warning system and national crop pest monitoring / pest management / regulation and sustainable agricultural development    

Uncertain and multi-objective programming models for crop planting structure optimization

Mo LI,Ping GUO,Liudong ZHANG,Chenglong ZHANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第3卷 第1期   页码 34-45 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2016084

摘要: Crop planting structure optimization is a significant way to increase agricultural economic benefits and improve agricultural water management. The complexities of fluctuating stream conditions, varying economic profits, and uncertainties and errors in estimated modeling parameters, as well as the complexities among economic, social, natural resources and environmental aspects, have led to the necessity of developing optimization models for crop planting structure which consider uncertainty and multi-objectives elements. In this study, three single-objective programming models under uncertainty for crop planting structure optimization were developed, including an interval linear programming model, an inexact fuzzy chance-constrained programming (IFCCP) model and an inexact fuzzy linear programming (IFLP) model. Each of the three models takes grayness into account. Moreover, the IFCCP model considers fuzzy uncertainty of parameters/variables and stochastic characteristics of constraints, while the IFLP model takes into account the fuzzy uncertainty of both constraints and objective functions. To satisfy the sustainable development of crop planting structure planning, a fuzzy-optimization-theory-based fuzzy linear multi-objective programming model was developed, which is capable of reflecting both uncertainties and multi-objective. In addition, a multi-objective fractional programming model for crop structure optimization was also developed to quantitatively express the multi-objective in one optimization model with the numerator representing maximum economic benefits and the denominator representing minimum crop planting area allocation. These models better reflect actual situations, considering the uncertainties and multi-objectives of crop planting structure optimization systems. The five models developed were then applied to a real case study in Minqin County, north-west China. The advantages, the applicable conditions and the solution methods of each model are expounded. Detailed analysis of results of each model and their comparisons demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of the models developed, therefore decision makers can choose the appropriate model when making decisions.

关键词: crop planting structure     optimization model     uncertainty     multi-objective    

ENABLING CROP DIVERSIFICATION TO SUPPORT TRANSITIONS TOWARD MORE SUSTAINABLE EUROPEAN AGRIFOOD SYSTEMS

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第3期   页码 474-480 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021406

摘要:

European cropping systems are often characterized by short rotations or even monocropping, leading to environmental issues such as soil degradation, water eutrophication, and air pollution including greenhouse gas emissions, that contribute to climate change and biodiversity loss. The use of diversification practices (i.e., intercropping, multiple cropping including cover cropping and rotation extension), may help enhance agrobiodiversity and deliver ecosystem services while developing new value chains. Despite its benefits, crop diversification is hindered by various technical, organizational, and institutional barriers along value chains (input industries, farms, trading and processing industries, retailers, and consumers) and within sociotechnical systems (policy, research, education, regulation and advisory). Six EU-funded research projects have joined forces to boost crop diversification by creating the European Crop Diversification Cluster (CDC). This Cluster aggregates research, innovation, commercial and citizen-focused partnerships to identify and remove barriers across the agrifood system and thus enables the uptake of diversification measures by all European value-chain stakeholders. The CDC will produce a typology of barriers, develop tools to accompany actors in their transition, harmonize the use of multicriteria assessment indicators, prepare policy recommendations and pave the way for a long-term network on crop diversification.

 

关键词: crop rotation     lock-in     intercropping     multiple cropping     networking    

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF CROP-LIVESTOCK FARMS IN AFRICA

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第1期

摘要:

Crop-livestock farms across Africa are highly variable due to in agroecological and socioeconomic factors, the latter shaping the demand and supply of livestock products. Crop-livestock farms in Africa in the 20-first century are very different from most mixed farms elsewhere in the world. African crop-livestock farms are smaller in size, have fewer livestock, lower productivity and less dependency on imported feed than farms in most countries of Europe, the Americas and the intensive agricultural systems of Asia. This paper discusses the role African crop-livestock farms have in the broader socio-agricultural economy, and how these are likely to change adapting to pressures brought on by the intensification of food systems. This intensification implies increasing land productivity (more food per hectare), often leading to more livestock heads per farm, producing fertilized feeds in croplands and importing feed supplements from the market. This discussion includes (1) the links between crop yields, soil fertility and crop-livestock integration, (2) the increasing demand for livestock products and the land resources required to meet to this demand, and (3) the opportunities to integrate broader societal goals into the development of crop-livestock farms. There is ample room for development of crop-livestock farms in Africa, and keeping integration as part of the development will help prevent many of the mistakes and environmental problems related to the intensification of livestock production observed elsewhere in the world. This development can integrate biodiversity, climate change adaptation and mitigation to the current goals of increasing productivity and food security. The inclusion of broader goals could help farmers access the level of finance required to implement changes.

REINTEGRATION OF CROP-LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS IN EUROPE: AN OVERVIEW

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第1期

摘要:

• ICLS combines the benefits of specialization with increased resilience of the system.

• Clear opportunities but also barriers for ICLS were observed.

• ICLS need to be embedded within future environmental legislation.

• ICLS systems with a range of intensities are needed to support a biodiverse landscape.

 

Ongoing specialization of crop and livestock systems provides socioeconomic benefits to the farmer but has led to greater externalization of environmental costs when compared to mixed farming systems. Better integration of crop and livestock systems offers great potential to rebalance the economic and environmental trade-offs in both systems. The aims of this study were to analyze changes in farm structure and review and evaluate the potential for reintegrating specialized intensive crop and livestock systems, with specific emphasis on identifying the co-benefits and barriers to reintegration. Historically, animals were essential to recycle nutrients in the farming system but this became less important with the availability of synthetic fertilisers. Although mixed farm systems can be economically attractive, benefits of scale combined with socio-economic factors have resulted in on-farm and regional specialization with negative environmental impacts. Reintegration is therefore needed to reduce nutrient surpluses at farm, regional and national levels, and to improve soil quality in intensive cropping systems. Reintegration offers practical and cost-effective options to widen crop rotations and promotes the use of organic inputs and associated benefits, reducing dependency on synthetic fertilisers, biocides and manure processing costs. Circular agriculture goes beyond manure management and requires adaptation of both food production and consumption patterns, matching local capacity to produce with food demand. Consequently, feed transport, greenhouse gas emissions, nutrient surpluses and nutrient losses to the environment can be reduced. It is concluded that reintegration of specialized farms within a region can provide benefits to farmers but may also lead to further intensification of land use. New approaches within a food system context offer alternatives for reintegration, but require strong policy incentives which show clear, tangible and lasting benefits for farmers, the environment and the wider community.

Impact of mechanical compaction on crop growth and sustainable agriculture REVIEW

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2024年 第11卷 第2期   页码 243-252 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2024566

摘要:

With the development of agricultural technology to meet the growing demands of a rapidly increasing population and economic development, intensive agriculture practices have been widely adopted globally. However, this intensification has resulted in adverse consequences for soil structure due to intensified farming activities and increased usage of heavy farm machinery. Of particular concern is soil compaction, which leads to the degradation of physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. Soil compaction negatively impacts crop growth, reduces yields and poses a significant threat to food security and the overall sustainability of agricultural systems. Recognizing these challenges, this review aims to deepen understanding of the factors contributing to soil compaction and to develop effective mitigation strategies. By doing so, it is intended to attenuate the adverse impacts of soil compaction, improve soil structure, increase crop yield and ultimately enhance the sustainability of agricultural practices.

关键词: Soil  compaction     mechanical  compaction     bio-tillage     agricultural production    

The effect of conservation tillage on crop yield in China

Hongwen LI,Jin HE,Huanwen GAO,Ying CHEN,Zhiqiang ZHANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第2卷 第2期   页码 179-185 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2015058

摘要: Traditional agricultural practices have resulted in decreased soil fertility, shortage of water resources and deterioration of agricultural ecological environment, which are seriously affecting grain production. Conservation tillage (CT) research has been developed and applied in China since the 1960s and 1970s, and a series of development policies have been issued by the Chinese government. Recent research and application have shown that CT has positive effects on crop yields in China. According to the data from the Conservation Tillage Research Center (CTRC), Chinese Ministry of Agriculture (MOA), the mean crop yield increase can be at least 4% in double cropping systems in the North China Plain and 6% in single cropping systems in the dryland areas of North-east and North-west China. Crop yield increase was particularly significant in dryland areas and drought years. The mechanism for the yield increase in CT system can be attributed to enhanced soil water content and improved soil properties. Development strategies have been implemented to accelerate the adoption of CT in China.

关键词: conservation tillage     crop yield     soil structure     development strategies    

Multiple Pollutants from Crop and Livestock Production in the Yangtze River: Status and Challenges NEWS & VIEWS

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2024年 第11卷 第1期   页码 134-139 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2023511

摘要:

The rapid increase in the proportion of cash crops and livestock production in the Yangtze River Basin has led to commensurate increases in fertilizer and pesticide inputs. Excessive application of chemical fertilizer, organophosphorus pesticides and inappropriate disposal of agricultural waste induced water pollution and potentially threaten Agriculture Green Development (AGD). To ensure food security and the food supply capacity of the Yangtze River Basin, it is important to balance green and development, while ensuring the quality of water bodies. Multiple pollutants affect the transfer, adsorption, photolysis and degradation of each other throughout the soil-plant-water system. This paper considers the impact of multi-pollutants on the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles especially for crops, which are related to achieving food security and AGD. It presents prospective on theory, modeling and multi-pollutant control in the Yangtze River Basin for AGD that are of potential value for other developing regions.

关键词: Agriculture Green Development     crop production     livestock production     multi-pollutant models     multiple pollutants     Yangtze River Basin    

Assessing the potential of crop residue recycling in China and technology options based on a bottom-up

Lili QU,Tianzhu ZHANG,Wei LU

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第4期   页码 570-579 doi: 10.1007/s11783-013-0604-2

摘要: Crop residues are an important biomass, and are significant in the sustainable development of China. This paper uses the Grey-Markov modeling approach, the cost-benefit analysis method, and the constraint optimization method to establish the potential of crop residue recycling in China (CRRC) using a bottom-up analysis. Taking 2010 as the baseline year, the CRRC model is used to determine the quantity trends of crop residue resources, simulating the recycling potential and selecting key crop residue recycling technologies for operation between 2010 and 2030. The results illustrate that the total residue output from different crops will gradually increase to 1062 million tons in 2030. The proportion of crop residue for field burning is expected to decrease as a result of guidance and support from the government. Market mechanisms are also improving the development of the crop residue recycling industry. The economic benefit of crop residue recycling is expected to be worth 132 billion CNY in 2030 according to technology structure options. Key crop residue recycling technologies preferred such as liquefaction, amination, silo, co-firing straw power and composting will account for more than 85% of the total benefits.

关键词: China     crop residue     recycling potential     technology options    

INTEGRATING CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS—TOWARDS AGRICULTURAL GREEN DEVELOPMENT

Yong HOU, Oene OENEMA, Fusuo ZHANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第1期   页码 1-14 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021384

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Can crop science really help us to produce more better-quality food while reducing the world-wide environmental

William J. DAVIES, Susan E. WARD, Alan WILSON

期刊论文

作物种质资源学科的发展和展望

董玉琛

期刊论文

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON CROP PRODUCTION, PESTS AND PATHOGENS OF WHEAT AND RICE

期刊论文

INTEGRATING CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS—TOWARDS AGRICULTURAL GREEN DEVELOPMENT

期刊论文

LINKING CROP WATER PRODUCTIVITY TO SOIL PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

期刊论文

RESEARCH AND APPLICATION OF CROP PEST MONITORING AND EARLY WARNING TECHNOLOGY IN CHINA

期刊论文

Uncertain and multi-objective programming models for crop planting structure optimization

Mo LI,Ping GUO,Liudong ZHANG,Chenglong ZHANG

期刊论文

ENABLING CROP DIVERSIFICATION TO SUPPORT TRANSITIONS TOWARD MORE SUSTAINABLE EUROPEAN AGRIFOOD SYSTEMS

期刊论文

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF CROP-LIVESTOCK FARMS IN AFRICA

期刊论文

REINTEGRATION OF CROP-LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS IN EUROPE: AN OVERVIEW

期刊论文

Impact of mechanical compaction on crop growth and sustainable agriculture

期刊论文

The effect of conservation tillage on crop yield in China

Hongwen LI,Jin HE,Huanwen GAO,Ying CHEN,Zhiqiang ZHANG

期刊论文

Multiple Pollutants from Crop and Livestock Production in the Yangtze River: Status and Challenges

期刊论文

Assessing the potential of crop residue recycling in China and technology options based on a bottom-up

Lili QU,Tianzhu ZHANG,Wei LU

期刊论文

INTEGRATING CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS—TOWARDS AGRICULTURAL GREEN DEVELOPMENT

Yong HOU, Oene OENEMA, Fusuo ZHANG

期刊论文