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DESIGNING DIVERSIFIED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN CHINA: THEORY, APPROACHES AND IMPLEMENTATION

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第3期   页码 362-372 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE -2021392

摘要:

Intensive agriculture in China over recent decades has successfully realized food security but at the expense of negative environmental impacts. Achieving green transformation of agriculture in China requires fundamental restructuring of cropping systems. This paper presents a theoretical framework of theory, approaches and implementation of crop diversification schemes in China. Initially, crop diversification schemes require identifying multiple objectives by simultaneously considering natural resources, limiting factors/constraints, and social and economic demands of different stakeholders. Then, it is necessary to optimize existing and/or design novel cropping systems based upon farming practices and ecological principles, and to strengthen targeted ecosystem services to achieve the identified objectives. Next, the resulting diversified cropping systems need to be evaluated and examined by employing experimental and modeling approaches. Finally, a strategic plan, as presented in this paper, is needed for implementing an optimized crop diversification in China based upon regional characteristics with the concurrent objectives of safe, nutritious food production and environmental protection. The North China Plain is used as an example to illustrate the strategic plan to optimize and design diversified cropping systems. The implementation of crop diversification in China will set an example for other countries undergoing agricultural transition, and contribute to global sustainable development.

 

关键词: Agriculture Green Development , crop diversification , cropping system modeling , ecosystem services , sustainable agriculture    

AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE BIOENERGY CROPPING SYSTEMS PROMOTING BIOMASS

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第2期 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021435

摘要:

Bioenergy, currently the largest renewable energy source in the EU (64% of the total renewable energy consumption), has sparked great interest to meet the 32% renewable resources for the 2030 bioeconomy goal. The design of innovative cropping systems informed by bioeconomy imperatives requires the evaluate of the effects of introducing crops for bioenergy into conventional crop rotations. This study aimed to assess the impacts of changes in conventional cropping systems in mixed dairy cattle farms redesigned to introduce bioenergy crops either by increasing the biomass production through an increase of cover crops, while keeping main feed/food crops, or by substituting food crops with an increase of the crop rotation length. The assessment is based on the comparison between conventional and innovative systems oriented to feed and biogas production, with and without tillage, to evaluate their agri-environmental performances (biomass production, nitrogen fertilization autonomy, greenhouse gas emissions and biogas production). The result showed higher values in the biogas cropping system than in the conventional and feed ones for all indicators, biomass productivity (27% and 20% higher, respectively), nitrogen fertilization autonomy (26% and 73% higher, respectively), methanogenic potential (77% and 41% higher, respectively) and greenhouse gas emissions (15% and 3% higher, respectively). There were no negative impacts of no-till compared to the tillage practice, for all tested variables. The biogas cropping system showed a better potential in terms of agri-environmental performance, although its greenhouse gas emissions were higher. Consequently, it would be appropriate to undertake a multicriteria assessment integrating agri-environmental, economic and social performances.

关键词: alternative cropping systems / bioeconomy / biogas / biomass production / fertilization autonomy / greenhouse gas assessment    

DESIGNING DIVERSIFIED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN CHINA: THEORY, APPROACHES AND IMPLEMENTATION

Wen-Feng CONG, Chaochun ZHANG, Chunjie LI, Guangzhou WANG, Fusuo ZHANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》   页码 362-372 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021392

摘要: Intensive agriculture in China over recent decades has successfully realized food security but at the expense of negative environmental impacts. Achieving green transformation of agriculture in China requires fundamental restructuring of cropping systems. This paper presents a theoretical framework of theory, approaches and implementation of crop diversification schemes in China. Initially, crop diversification schemes require identifying multiple objectives by simultaneously considering natural resources, limiting factors/constraints, and social and economic demands of different stakeholders. Then, it is necessary to optimize existing and/or design novel cropping systems based upon farming practices and ecological principles, and to strengthen targeted ecosystem services to achieve the identified objectives. Next, the resulting diversified cropping systems need to be evaluated and examined by employing experimental and modeling approaches. Finally, a strategic plan, as presented in this paper, is needed for implementing an optimized crop diversification in China based upon regional characteristics with the concurrent objectives of safe, nutritious food production and environmental protection. The North China Plain is used as an example to illustrate the strategic plan to optimize and design diversified cropping systems. The implementation of crop diversification in China will set an example for other countries undergoing agricultural transition, and contribute to global sustainable development.

关键词: Agriculture Green Development     crop diversification     cropping system modeling     ecosystem services     sustainable agriculture    

Methodological considerations for redesigning sustainable cropping systems: the value of data-mininglarge and detailed farm data sets at the cropping system level

Nicolas MUNIER-JOLAIN, Martin LECHENET

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第7卷 第1期   页码 21-27 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019292

摘要:

Redesigning cropping and farming systems to enhance their sustainability is mainly addressed in scientific studies using experimental and modeling approaches. Large data sets collected from real farms allow for the development of innovative methods to produce generic knowledge. Data mining methods allow for the diversity of systems to be considered holistically and can take into account the diversity of production contexts to produce site-specific results. Based on the very few known studies using such methods to analyze the crop management strategies affecting pesticide use and their effect on farm performance, we advocate further investment in the development of large data sets that can support future research programs on farming system design.

关键词: data mining     holistic     Integrated Pest Management     economics     DEPHY network.    

TRADE-OFFS IN THE DESIGN OF SUSTAINABLE CROPPING SYSTEMS AT A REGIONAL LEVEL: A CASE STUDY ON THE NORTH

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第2期 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021434

摘要:

Since the Green Revolution cropping systems have been progressively homogenized and intensified with increasing rates of inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides and water. This has resulted in higher crop productivity but also a high environmental burden due to increased pollution and water depletion. To identify opportunities for increasing the productivity and reducing the environmental impact of cropping systems, it is crucial to assess the associated trade-offs. The paper presents a model-based analysis of how 30 different crop rotations practiced in the North China Plain could be combined at the regional level to overcome trade-offs between indicators of economic, food security, and environmental performance. The model uses evolutionary multi-objective optimization to maximize revenues, livestock products, dietary and vitamin C yield, and to minimize the decline of the groundwater table. The modeling revealed substantial trade-offs between objectives of maximizing productivity and profitability versus minimizing ground water decline, and between production of livestock products and vitamin C yield. Six strategies each defining a specific combination of cropping systems and contributing to different extents to the various objectives were identified. Implementation of these six strategies could be used to find opportunities to mitigate the trade-offs between objectives. It was concluded that a holistic analysis of the potential of a diversity cropping systems at a regional level is needed to find integrative solutions for challenges due to conflicting objectives for food production, economic viability and environmental protection.

关键词: crop rotation / food security / multi-objective optimization / water use    

CHALLENGES PROVIDING MULTIPLE ECOSYSTEM BENEFITS FOR SUSTAINABLE MANAGED SYSTEMS

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第2期 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2022444

摘要:

Since humans started practicing agriculture at the expense of natural forests, 8000 years ago, they have affected atmospheric CO2concentrations. Their impact on atmospheric CH4 started about 5000 years ago, as result of the cultivation of paddy rice. A challenge of modern agricultural practices is to reverse the impact cropping has had on greenhouse gas emissions and the global climate. There is an increasing demand for agriculture to provide food security as well as a range of other ecosystem services. Depending on ecosystem management, different practices may involve trade-offs and synergies, and these must be considered to work toward desirable management systems. Solution toward food security should not only focus on agricultural management practices, but also on strategies to reduce food waste, more socially-just distribution of resources, changes in lifestyle including decarbonization of the economy, as well as reducing human population growth.

关键词: crop diversification / ecosystem services / food security / sustainable cropping systems    

ENABLING CROP DIVERSIFICATION TO SUPPORT TRANSITIONS TOWARD MORE SUSTAINABLE EUROPEAN AGRIFOOD SYSTEMS

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第3期   页码 474-480 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021406

摘要:

European cropping systems are often characterized by short rotations or even monocropping, leading to environmental issues such as soil degradation, water eutrophication, and air pollution including greenhouse gas emissions, that contribute to climate change and biodiversity loss. The use of diversification practices (i.e., intercropping, multiple cropping including cover cropping and rotation extension), may help enhance agrobiodiversity and deliver ecosystem services while developing new value chains. Despite its benefits, crop diversification is hindered by various technical, organizational, and institutional barriers along value chains (input industries, farms, trading and processing industries, retailers, and consumers) and within sociotechnical systems (policy, research, education, regulation and advisory). Six EU-funded research projects have joined forces to boost crop diversification by creating the European Crop Diversification Cluster (CDC). This Cluster aggregates research, innovation, commercial and citizen-focused partnerships to identify and remove barriers across the agrifood system and thus enables the uptake of diversification measures by all European value-chain stakeholders. The CDC will produce a typology of barriers, develop tools to accompany actors in their transition, harmonize the use of multicriteria assessment indicators, prepare policy recommendations and pave the way for a long-term network on crop diversification.

 

关键词: crop rotation     lock-in     intercropping     multiple cropping     networking    

SUSTAINABLE SUGARCANE CROPPING IN CHINA

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第2期 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2022442

摘要:

Demand for sugar is projected to grow in China for the foreseeable future. However, sugarcane production is unlikely to increase due to increasing production cost and decreasing profit margin. The persisting sugarcane yield plateau and the current cropping system with fertilizer overuse, soil acidification and pests and diseases remain the major productivity constraints. Sugarcane agriculture supports the livelihood of about 28 million farmers in South China; hence, sustaining it is a socioeconomic imperative. More compellingly, to meet the ever-increasing Chinese market demand, annual sugar production must be increased from the current 10 Mt to 16 Mt by 2030 of which 80% to 90% comes from sugarcane. Therefore, increasing sugar yield and crop productivity in an environmentally sustainable way must be a priority. This review examines the current Chinese sugarcane production system and discuss options for its transition to a green, sustainable cropping system, which is vital for the long-term viability of the industry. This analysis shows that reducing chemical inputs, preventing soil degradation, improving soil health, managing water deficit, provision of clean planting material, and consolidation of small farm holdings are critical requirements to transform the current farming practices into an economically and environmentally sustainable sugarcane cropping system.

关键词: sustainable sugarcane cropping / soil health / rotation and intercropping / soil acidification    

Phosphorus status, use and recycling in a Chinese peri-urban region with intensive animal husbandry and croppingsystems

Marco ROELCKE, Lisa HEIMANN, Yong HOU, Jianbin GUO, Qiaoyun XUE, Wei JIA, Anne OSTERMANN, Roxana Mendoza HUAITALLA, Moritz ENGBERS, Clemens OLBRICH, Roland W. SCHOLZ, Joachim CLEMENS, Frank SCHUCHARDT, Rolf NIEDER, Xuejun LIU, Fusuo ZHANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第4期   页码 388-402 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019286

摘要:

The Sino-German research collaboration project, “Recycling of organic residues from agricultural and municipal origin in China” (2008–2012), comprising different interdisciplinary research groups, and also German small and medium-sized enterprises, aimed at developing integrated strategies and solutions for the recycling of organic residues in China. In an intensive crop-livestock agricultural region in the Shunyi District of Beijing, five typical cropping systems were investigated. The research was conducted in the form of analyses of phosphorus (P) in soil, plants, animal feed, animal products, manures, mineral and organic fertilizers and the derivation of the corresponding nutrient balances and P flows. The mean annual P balance surplus was 492 kg·ha ·yr P for the vegetable production system, significantly higher ( <0.05) than that for orchards (130 kg·ha ·yr P) and cereal crops (83 kg·ha ·yr P). Plant-available P (Olsen-P) concentrations of topsoils (0–20 cm) had good correlations with the amounts of P applied (from mineral and organic sources). Compared to results from the Second Chinese National Soil Survey of 1981, mean concentrations of available P in soils of 19 plots investigated in Shunyi District increased 10-fold (from 7.3 to 60 mg·kg ) from 1981 to 2009. On average, the critical limit for Olsen-P concentrations (>30 mg·kg ) that can lead to increased risk of P loss was exceeded in all five cropping systems. With feed additives, the “natural background value” (Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils) of copper and zinc in topsoils was exceeded at several sites. Screening for several substances in the veterinary antibiotic classes of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones revealed widespread topsoil contamination. Calculated livestock densities were 10.6 livestock units per ha arable land in 2007. Animal husbandry is increasingly conducted in large operations, making traditional ways of reuse difficult to apply. Comparing three management systems for treatment of organic residues from a pig farm via aerobic (composting) or anaerobic (biogas) treatment in a life cycle assessment, the resulting cropland demand for a sustainable land application of biogas effluent varied between 139 and 288 ha·yr , well above the cropland area owned by the farm (10 ha). The mismatch problems in the above context between business-as-usual and improving performance are framed and discussed as (1) the mismatch between centralized animal husbandry and smallholder farming, (2) the mismatch between livestock density and cropland, (3) nutrient (including P) recycling and increasing organic matter content versus energy production, (4) subsidies for compost production and biogas, as well as (5) advances in the regulatory framework in China.

关键词: cropping systems     life cycle assessment     North China Plain     balances and nutrient flows     transdisciplinary approach    

CH4 and N2O emissions from double-rice cropping system as affected by Chinese milk

Heshui XU,Dengyun LI,Bo ZHU,Kai ZHANG,Yadong YANG,Chen WANG,Ying JIANG,Zhaohai ZENG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第1期   页码 59-68 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2017137

摘要: Chinese milk vetch (CMV) and rice straw (RS) were incorporated into soil to substitute for synthetic N fertilizers and to maintain soil fertility. However, little is known about the integrated impacts of CMV and RS incorporation on CH and N O emissions in double-rice cropping systems in southern China. A field experiment was conducted to estimate the integrated impacts of CMV and RS incorporation in the early- and late-rice seasons on CH and N O emissions. All treatments received uniform N inputs, 6%–37% of which was replaced by CMV and RS crop residue. CMV and/or RS incorporation produced equivalent or slightly more grain yield, while reducing N O emissions by 3%–43%. However, both CMV and RS incorporation increased CH emissions. Annual CH emissions ranged from 321 to 614 kg·hm from CMV and RS amendment treatments, which were 1.5–2.9 times higher than that from synthetic N. Compared with single synthetic N fertilizer, incorporation of CMV and/or RS increased GWP and yield-scaled GWP by 45%–164% and 45%–153%, respectively. Our results demonstrate CMV and RS amendments replacing N fertilizer, maintained stable yield, mitigated N O emission, but enhanced CH emission. Further study is needed on crop residue management in double-cropping rice systems.

关键词: Chinese milk vetch     CH4     double-rice cropping system     grain yield     N2O     rice straw    

Strategies for improving fertilizer phosphorus use efficiency in Chinese cropping systems

Gu FENG, Jingping GAI, Xionghan FENG, Haigang LI, Lin ZHANG, Keke YI, Jialong LV, Yiyong ZHU, Li TANG, Yilin LI

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第4期   页码 341-347 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019280

摘要:

A four-year project, entitled “The mechanisms of fraction transformation and high use efficiency of P fertilizer in Chinese cropping systems” commenced in 2017. The project was established to answer three key questions and looked at 17 cropping systems on ten soils. First, we asked what are the dynamics of transformation, fixation and mobilization of P fertilizers in soil-cropping systems? Second, what are the mechanisms of soil-crop-microbe interactions by which P fertilizer can be efficiently used? Third, how to manipulate the processes of P use in cropping systems? The targets of this project are (1) to explore the mechanisms of P fixation, the pathways of loss of P availability and the threshold of migration of fertilizer P in the field; (2) to uncover mechanisms by which soil legacy P is mobilized through root physiological and morphological processes and through arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and P-solubilizing bacteria in rhizosphere and hyphosphere; (3) to estimate the biological potential of crops for high efficiency P absorption and use; (4) to innovate new approaches for improving the efficiency of P fertilizers. The outcomes will provide theoretical support for setting standards for limitation of P fertilizer application rate in the main cropping zones of China.

关键词: fixation     mobilization     phosphorus fertilizer     rhizosphere     transformations     utilization    

Current status and prospects of reliability systems engineering in China

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 492-502 doi: 10.1007/s42524-021-0172-2

摘要: This study provides a systematic overview of the advent and evolution of reliability systems engineering (RSE) in China, and the latest RSE development, that is, model-based RSE (MBRSE), is emphatically introduced. The establishment of the system architecture and conceptual models of MBRSE is first described. The fundamental theory and methodology of MBRSE are then elaborated, with a V-model as the core of this approach. The development of various MBRSE platforms and the effectiveness of their implementation over the past 30 years are presented. The prospective trends in the development of RSE in China are outlined.

关键词: reliability     effectiveness     model-based systems engineering     reliability systems engineering    

Floating production storage and offloading systems’ cost and motion performance: A systems thinking application

Rini NISHANTH, Andrew WHYTE, V. John KURIAN

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2018年 第5卷 第3期   页码 357-368 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2018022

摘要:

Floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) units increasingly represent a practical and economic means for deep-water oil extraction and production. Systems thinking gives a unique opportunity to seek a balance between FPSO technical performance(s), with whole-cost; stakeholder decision-making is charged to align different fit-for-use design specification options’ that address technical-motion(s), with respective life-cycle cost analyses (LCCA). Soft system methodology allows situation based analyses over set periods-of-time by diagnosing the problem-at-hand; namely, assessing the antecedents of life-cycle cost relative to FPSO sub-component design alternatives. Alternative mooring- component comparisons for either new-build hulls or refurbished hulls represent an initial necessary consideration to facilitate extraction, production and storage of deep-water oil reserves. Coupled dynamic analysis has been performed to generate FPSO motion in six degrees of freedom using SESAM DeepC, while life-cycle cost analysis (LCAA) studies give net-present-value comparisons reflective of market conditions. A parametric study has been conducted by varying wave heights from 4 – 8 m to understand FPSO motion behavior in the presence of wind and current, as well as comparing the motions of turreted versus spread mooring design alternatives. LCCA data has been generated to compare the cost of such different mooring options/hull conditions over 10 and 25-year periods. Systems thinking has been used to explain the interaction of problem variables; resultantly this paper is able to identify explicit factors affecting the choice of FPSO configurations in terms of motion and whole-cost, toward assisting significantly with the front-end engineering design (FEED) phase of fit-for-purpose configured FPSOs, in waters off Malaysia and Australia.

关键词: FPSO     LCCA     spread/turret-mooring     DeepC     cost     motion     soft-systems    

Transition towards carbon-neutral electrical systems for China: Challenges and perspectives

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第3期   页码 504-508 doi: 10.1007/s42524-022-0220-6

关键词: carbon neutrality     power systems     electrification     renewable energy    

Applying an Integrated Systems Perspective to the Management of Engineering Projects

Simon P. Philbin

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2015年 第2卷 第1期   页码 19-30 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2015004

摘要: Engineering projects can be subject to significant complexity, which may result in a number of issues and challenges that need to be addressed throughout the project life-cycle. Traditionally projects have been viewed according to the so called “iron triangle,” i. e., achievement of project milestones according to schedule, cost and quality targets. While these targets are fundamentally important to the performance of engineering projects, it is possible to view projects on a systemic level in order to allow an adequate focus on all the underpinning factors that have the potential to influence the performance of projects. Consequently, a management framework has been developed that is based on an integrated systems perspective of engineering projects, where the performance of projects is a function of six contributing sub-systems that are: process, technology, resources, knowledge, culture and impact.

关键词: integrated systems perspective     engineering projects     management    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

DESIGNING DIVERSIFIED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN CHINA: THEORY, APPROACHES AND IMPLEMENTATION

期刊论文

AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE BIOENERGY CROPPING SYSTEMS PROMOTING BIOMASS

期刊论文

DESIGNING DIVERSIFIED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN CHINA: THEORY, APPROACHES AND IMPLEMENTATION

Wen-Feng CONG, Chaochun ZHANG, Chunjie LI, Guangzhou WANG, Fusuo ZHANG

期刊论文

Methodological considerations for redesigning sustainable cropping systems: the value of data-mininglarge and detailed farm data sets at the cropping system level

Nicolas MUNIER-JOLAIN, Martin LECHENET

期刊论文

TRADE-OFFS IN THE DESIGN OF SUSTAINABLE CROPPING SYSTEMS AT A REGIONAL LEVEL: A CASE STUDY ON THE NORTH

期刊论文

CHALLENGES PROVIDING MULTIPLE ECOSYSTEM BENEFITS FOR SUSTAINABLE MANAGED SYSTEMS

期刊论文

ENABLING CROP DIVERSIFICATION TO SUPPORT TRANSITIONS TOWARD MORE SUSTAINABLE EUROPEAN AGRIFOOD SYSTEMS

期刊论文

SUSTAINABLE SUGARCANE CROPPING IN CHINA

期刊论文

Phosphorus status, use and recycling in a Chinese peri-urban region with intensive animal husbandry and croppingsystems

Marco ROELCKE, Lisa HEIMANN, Yong HOU, Jianbin GUO, Qiaoyun XUE, Wei JIA, Anne OSTERMANN, Roxana Mendoza HUAITALLA, Moritz ENGBERS, Clemens OLBRICH, Roland W. SCHOLZ, Joachim CLEMENS, Frank SCHUCHARDT, Rolf NIEDER, Xuejun LIU, Fusuo ZHANG

期刊论文

CH4 and N2O emissions from double-rice cropping system as affected by Chinese milk

Heshui XU,Dengyun LI,Bo ZHU,Kai ZHANG,Yadong YANG,Chen WANG,Ying JIANG,Zhaohai ZENG

期刊论文

Strategies for improving fertilizer phosphorus use efficiency in Chinese cropping systems

Gu FENG, Jingping GAI, Xionghan FENG, Haigang LI, Lin ZHANG, Keke YI, Jialong LV, Yiyong ZHU, Li TANG, Yilin LI

期刊论文

Current status and prospects of reliability systems engineering in China

期刊论文

Floating production storage and offloading systems’ cost and motion performance: A systems thinking application

Rini NISHANTH, Andrew WHYTE, V. John KURIAN

期刊论文

Transition towards carbon-neutral electrical systems for China: Challenges and perspectives

期刊论文

Applying an Integrated Systems Perspective to the Management of Engineering Projects

Simon P. Philbin

期刊论文