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Effect of a new antitranspirant on the physiology and water use efficiency of soybean under different irrigation rates in an arid region

Shasha JI, Ling TONG, Fusheng LI, Hongna LU, Sien LI, Taisheng DU, Youjie WU

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第2期   页码 155-164 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2017148

摘要: Antitranspirants are exogenous substances applied to leaves to reduce luxury transpiration by regulating stomatal conductance to increase water use efficiency (WUE). A cheap and environmentally-friendly antitranspirant, FZ, was newly developed, extracted mainly from . Its effects on soybean water use were investigated in a field experiment using the locally-used irrigation rate and a low irrigation rate (The lower and upper limit of irrigation is 40%–70% of field capacity). Foliar application of FZ and measurement of leaf physiological characteristics, final biomass, seed yield and water use efficiency were carried out during the pod bearing and pod filling stages of drip-irrigated soybean with film-mulching. Under the low irrigation rate, leaf stomatal conductance (g ) and transpiration rate (Tr) decreased significantly by 7 d after spraying, but photosynthesis (Pn) and instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE ) were not significantly affec ted. The stomatal frequency, stomatal aperture, g , Tr and Pn decreased by 1 d after spraying, without significantly increasing WUE . However, applying FZ during the pod bearing and pod filling stages did not significantly affect the final biomass, water consumption, seed yield and WUE of soybean. Under the locally-used irrigation rate, applying FZ increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in the leaves by 38% and 33%, respectively, but did not significantly affect g , Tr, Pn, stomatal aperture and stomatal frequency. Applying FZ three times during pod bearing and pod filling stages enhanced seed yield and WUE by 24% and 21%, respectively, but did not significantly affect the final biomass and water consumption. Therefore, seed yield and WUE of soybean were significantly increased by foliar application of FZ during the pod bearing and pod filling stages under the locally-used irrigation rate in arid region, but applying FZ did not have a positive effect on water use efficiency of soybean under a low irrigation rate.

关键词: antitranspirant     soybean     water deficit     leaf gas exchange     enzymes activities     water consumption     seed yield    

Numerical simulation of three-dimensional gas/liquid two-phase flow in a proton exchange membrane fuel

ZHUGE Weilin, ZHANG Yangjun, LAO Xingsheng, CHEN Xiao, MING Pingwen

《能源前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第3期   页码 305-310 doi: 10.1007/s11708-007-0044-4

摘要: Investigation into the formation and transport of liquid water in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is the key to fuel cell water management. A three-dimensional gas/liquid two-phase flow and heat transfer model is developed based on the multiphase mixture theory. The reactant gas flow, diffusion, and chemical reaction as well as the liquid water transport and phase change process are modeled. Numerical simulations on liquid water distribution and its effects on the performance of a PEMFC are conducted. Results show that liquid water distributes mostly in the cathode, and predicted cell performance decreases quickly at high current density due to the obstruction of liquid water to oxygen diffusion. The simulation results agree well with experimental data.

关键词: diffusion     gas/liquid two-phase     management     exchange     transfer    

Characteristics of night soil and leaf co-composting using aerobic static method

Xiaojie SUN, Dunqiu WANG, Wenjing LU, Hongtao WANG

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2012年 第6卷 第3期   页码 421-427 doi: 10.1007/s11783-011-0380-9

摘要: The main purpose of this work is to investigate the characteristics of night soil and leaf co-composting using aerobic static composting method. Three influencing factors, including proportion of night soil and leaf, aeration rate and aeration pattern, were investigated through the evolution of the principal physicochemical properties, i.e., temperature, oxygen consumption rate, organic matters, moisture content, carbon, nitrogen, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and Germination index (GI). It was found that the 3∶1 (w∶w) mixture of night soil and leaf was capable of achieving the highest composting temperature, longest retention time of high temperature (55°C), and fastest organic matter degradation. The 0.14 m ·min ·m aeration rate was most beneficial to composting, and the mixture of night soil and leaf maintained the highest temperature for the longest duration and achieved the highest CO content and GI. The continuous aeration pattern during composting was superior to an intermittent aeration pattern, since the latter delayed the composting process.

关键词: night soil     leaf     aerobic compost     aeration rate     aeration pattern    

Nanovaccines for remodeling the suppressive tumor microenvironment: New horizons in cancer immunotherapy

Kai Shi, Matthew Haynes, Leaf Huang

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第4期   页码 676-684 doi: 10.1007/s11705-017-1640-4

摘要: Despite limited successes in clinical development, therapeutic cancer vaccines have experienced resurgence in recent years due to an enhanced emphasis upon co-mitigating factors underlying immune response. Specifically, reversing the immune-suppressive effects of the tumor microenvironment, mediated by a variety of cellular and molecular signaling mechanisms, has become fundamental toward enhancing therapeutic efficacy. Therein, our lab has implemented various nano-vaccines based on the lipid-coated calcium phosphate platform for combined immunotherapy, in which antigenic, epitope-associated peptides as well as immune-suppression inhibitors can be co-delivered, often functioning through the same formulation. In probing the mechanism of action of such systems and , an improved effect synergy can be elucidated, inspiring future preclinical efforts and hope for clinical success.

关键词: vaccine     nanoparticle     tumor     immunotherapy     microenvironment    

can promote cucumber growth and control cucumber corynespora leaf spot

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2024537

摘要:

● First report of bacteria Paenarthrobacter nitroguajacolicus for effective control of cucumber corynespora leaf spot and promotion of cucumber growth.

关键词: Adaptability     antagonistic bacterium     disease resistance     growth promotion     secondary metabolite    

Heat, mass, and work exchange networks

Zhiyou CHEN, Jingtao WANG

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2012年 第6卷 第4期   页码 484-502 doi: 10.1007/s11705-012-1221-5

摘要: Heat (energy), water (mass), and work (pressure) are the most fundamental utilities for operation units in chemical plants. To reduce energy consumption and diminish environment hazards, various integration methods have been developed. The application of heat exchange networks (HENs), mass exchange networks (MENs), water allocation heat exchange networks (WAHENs) and work exchange networks (WENs) have resulted in the significant saving of energy and water. This review presents the main works related to each network. The similarities and differences of these networks are also discussed. Through comparing and discussing these different networks, this review inspires researchers to propose more efficient and convenient methods for the design of existing exchange networks and even new types of networks including multi-objective networks for the system integration in order to enhance the optimization and controllability of processes.

关键词: process system engineering     integration methods     heat exchange network     mass exchange network     work exchange network    

Can the Shanghai LNG Price Index indicate Chinese market? An econometric investigation using price discovery theory

Yeli ZENG, Cong DONG, Mikael HÖÖK, Jinhua SUN, Danyang SHI

《能源前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第4期   页码 726-739 doi: 10.1007/s11708-020-0701-4

摘要: China became the world’s second largest liquefied natural gas (LNG) importer in 2018 but has faced extremely high import costs due to a lack of bargaining power. Assessments of the Shanghai LNG Price Index, first released in 2015, are vital for improving the understanding of these cost dynamics. This paper, using the LNG price index data from the Shanghai Petroleum and Gas Exchange (SHPGX) coupled with domestic and international LNG prices from July 1, 2015 to December 31, 2018, estimates several econometric models to evaluate the long-term and short-term equilibriums of the Shanghai LNG Price Index, the responses to market information shocks and the leading or lagging relationships with LNG and alternative energy prices from other agencies. The results show that the LNG price index of the SHPGX has already exhibited a long-term equilibrium and short-term adjustment mechanisms to reflect the average price level and market movements, but the market information transparency and price discovery efficiency of the index are still inadequate. China’s LNG market is still relatively independent of other natural gas markets, and marketization reforms are under way in China. The influence of the SHPGX LNG price index on the trading decisions of market participants is expected to improve with further development of China’s LNG reforms, the formation of a natural gas entry-exit system, and the increasing liquidity of the hub.

关键词: liquefied natural gas     price index     Shanghai Petroleum and Gas Exchange     price discovery     market reforms    

Seasonal variations in leaf capturing of particulate matter, surface wettability and micromorphology

Huixia WANG, Hui SHI, Yangyang LI, Ya YU, Jun ZHANG

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第4期   页码 579-588 doi: 10.1007/s11783-013-0524-1

摘要: The seasonal changes in leaf particulate matter (PM) accumulation, surface wettability and micromorphology in urban tree species, including ( . ), ( . ) and ( . ), were studied during a single growing season. The three species showed distinct seasonal trends in PM accumulation, increasing from spring to autumn (or winter) even during the rainy season, but at different rates. During the study, the leaf PM retention amount of , a species with ridged leaf surfaces, was significantly higher than that of and , species with waxy leaf surfaces. The contact angles of water droplets on leaves decreased with leaf age except on the abaxial surface of , which remained non-wettable or highly non-wettable throughout the growing season; the decrease in the contact angle on adaxial surface of was greater when compared with and . A significant and negative relationship existed between leaf PM retention amounts and contact angles on adaxial surface of leaves of all three species. The increase in wettability, probably caused when epicuticular wax was destroyed by mechanical and chemical abrasion, seemed to be the main factor leading to seasonal variations in leaf PM accumulation.

关键词: contact angle     particulate matter     retention amount    

Control strategies for disinfection byproducts by ion exchange resin, nanofiltration and their sequential

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第10期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-023-1725-x

摘要:

● Effects of AER adsorption and NF on DBP precursors, DBPs, and TOX were examined.

关键词: Disinfection byproducts     Control     Anion exchange resin     Nanofiltration     Cytotoxicity    

Advancing ion-exchange membranes to ion-selective membranes: principles, status, and opportunities

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-023-1625-0

摘要:

● IEM ion/ion selectivities of charge, valence, & specific ion are critically assessed.

关键词: Ion-exchange membranes     Selectivity     Separations    

TiO supported IrO for anode reversal tolerance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell

《能源前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第5期   页码 852-861 doi: 10.1007/s11708-021-0811-7

摘要: Fuel starvation can occur and cause damage to the cell when proton exchange membrane fuel cells operate under complex working conditions. In this case, carbon corrosion occurs. Oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts can alleviate carbon corrosion by introducing water electrolysis at a lower potential at the anode in fuel shortage. The mixture of hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) and unsupported OER catalyst not only reduces the electrolysis efficiency, but also influences the initial performance of the fuel cell. Herein, Ti4O7 supported IrOx is synthesized by utilizing the surfactant-assistant method and serves as reversal tolerant components in the anode. When the cell reverse time is less than 100 min, the cell voltage of the MEA added with IrOx/Ti4O7 has almost no attenuation. Besides, the MEA has a longer reversal time (530 min) than IrOx (75 min), showing an excellent reversal tolerance. The results of electron microscopy spectroscopy show that IrOx particles have a good dispersity on the surface of Ti4O7 and IrOx/Ti4O7 particles are uniformly dispersed on the anode catalytic layer. After the stability test, the Ti4O7 support has little decay, demonstrating a high electrochemical stability. IrOx/Ti4O7 with a high dispersity has a great potential to the application on the reversal tolerance anode of the fuel cell.

关键词: proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)     fuel starvation     cell reverse     reversal tolerance anode     oxygen evolution reaction    

Electro-assisted regeneration of ion exchange resins

LIU Zhigang, WANG Ying, LI Yansheng, CHANG Hui

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2008年 第2卷 第4期   页码 410-414 doi: 10.1007/s11783-008-0069-x

摘要: Electro-assisted regeneration (EAR) for the mixed bed of strongly acidic cation and weakly basic anion exchange resins with the Al(OH) suspension in a three-compartment cell was investigated. The desalination experiments were carried out to evaluate the characteristic of the regenerated mixed resins. Experimental results showed that the efficiency of resin regeneration was strictly dependent on the voltage, regeneration time, and feed regenerant flow rate. The amount of the effluent reached 50 times the volume of the resins bed, and the conductivity was less than 1.0 ?s/cm. Compared to the conventional ER, the total effluent volume of EAR was about 1000 mL more than that of ER under the same conditions, and the outlet conductivity was significantly lower. The desalination and regeneration reaction mechanisms of the mixed resins indicated the regeneration efficiency of resin with Al(OH) as the regenerant was much higher than that with HO.

关键词: effluent volume     acidic     three-compartment     weakly     exchange    

Salinity exchange between seawater/brackish water and domestic wastewater through electrodialysis for

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-023-1616-1

摘要:

● Present a general concept called “salinity exchange”.

关键词: Desalination     Potable water reuse     Ion-exchange membrane     Salinity gradient energy     Wastewater discharge    

Identification and selection of resistance to

Lizhen ZHU, Jianying LI, Zhongping XU, Hakim MANGHWAR, Sijia LIANG, Suli LI, Muna ALARIQI, Shuangxia JIN, Xianlong ZHANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第5卷 第2期   页码 236-252 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2018223

摘要: Plants have developed sophisticated systems to cope with herbivore challenge, including morphological barriers and secondary metabolites to reduce damage. In this study, 550 genotypes were evaluated for whitefly ( ) resistance in five experiments including two in the field and three in the greenhouse, with 23 resistant and 19 susceptible genotypes selected. Whitefly-resistance index determination showed that a leaf having a high density of hairs had resistance to whitfly egg/nymph production. Longer leaf hairs were also important for resistance. This study revealed that okra shaped leaves reduced adult whitefly oviposition preference, while glabrous leaves and high hair density helped not only in the reduction of the adults but also decreased oviposition preference. Gossypol was also observed to be involved in the reduction of adult whitefly development and/or survival.

关键词: Bemisia tabaci     Gossypium genotypes     gossypol     leaf hair density     leaf hair length    

A district heating system based on absorption heat exchange with CHP systems

Lin FU, Yan LI, Yi JIANG, Shigang ZHANG,

《能源前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第1期   页码 77-83 doi: 10.1007/s11708-010-0022-0

摘要: In order to decrease the energy consumption of large-scale district heating systems with cogeneration, a district heating system is presented in this paper based on absorption heat exchange in the cogeneration system named Co-ah cycle, which means that the cogeneration system is based on absorption heat exchange. In substations of the heating system, the temperature of return water of primary heat network is reduced to about 25°C through the absorption heat-exchange units. In the thermal station of the cogeneration plant, return water is heated orderly by the exhaust steam in the condenser, the absorption heat pumps, and the peak load heater. Compared with traditional heating systems, this system runs with a greater circuit temperature drop so that the delivery capacity of the heat network increases dramatically. Moreover, by recovering the exhausted heat from the condensers, the capacity of the district heating system and the energy efficiency of the combined heat and power system (CHP system) are highly developed. Therefore, high energy and economic efficiency can be obtained.

关键词: cogeneration     district heating     absorption heat exchange     Co-ah cycle    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Effect of a new antitranspirant on the physiology and water use efficiency of soybean under different irrigation rates in an arid region

Shasha JI, Ling TONG, Fusheng LI, Hongna LU, Sien LI, Taisheng DU, Youjie WU

期刊论文

Numerical simulation of three-dimensional gas/liquid two-phase flow in a proton exchange membrane fuel

ZHUGE Weilin, ZHANG Yangjun, LAO Xingsheng, CHEN Xiao, MING Pingwen

期刊论文

Characteristics of night soil and leaf co-composting using aerobic static method

Xiaojie SUN, Dunqiu WANG, Wenjing LU, Hongtao WANG

期刊论文

Nanovaccines for remodeling the suppressive tumor microenvironment: New horizons in cancer immunotherapy

Kai Shi, Matthew Haynes, Leaf Huang

期刊论文

can promote cucumber growth and control cucumber corynespora leaf spot

期刊论文

Heat, mass, and work exchange networks

Zhiyou CHEN, Jingtao WANG

期刊论文

Can the Shanghai LNG Price Index indicate Chinese market? An econometric investigation using price discovery theory

Yeli ZENG, Cong DONG, Mikael HÖÖK, Jinhua SUN, Danyang SHI

期刊论文

Seasonal variations in leaf capturing of particulate matter, surface wettability and micromorphology

Huixia WANG, Hui SHI, Yangyang LI, Ya YU, Jun ZHANG

期刊论文

Control strategies for disinfection byproducts by ion exchange resin, nanofiltration and their sequential

期刊论文

Advancing ion-exchange membranes to ion-selective membranes: principles, status, and opportunities

期刊论文

TiO supported IrO for anode reversal tolerance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell

期刊论文

Electro-assisted regeneration of ion exchange resins

LIU Zhigang, WANG Ying, LI Yansheng, CHANG Hui

期刊论文

Salinity exchange between seawater/brackish water and domestic wastewater through electrodialysis for

期刊论文

Identification and selection of resistance to

Lizhen ZHU, Jianying LI, Zhongping XU, Hakim MANGHWAR, Sijia LIANG, Suli LI, Muna ALARIQI, Shuangxia JIN, Xianlong ZHANG

期刊论文

A district heating system based on absorption heat exchange with CHP systems

Lin FU, Yan LI, Yi JIANG, Shigang ZHANG,

期刊论文