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期刊论文 46

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LEVERAGING LIVESTOCK TO PROMOTE A CIRCULAR FOOD SYSTEM

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第1期

摘要:

Livestock provide multifaceted services to human societies worldwide. In developing countries, they are crucial assets and safety net for rural poor, and they provide nutrients-dense food to nourish people. In developed economies, growth in demand for animal-derived food is slowing while attention is growing over the role of livestock farming in an enhanced circular food system for sustainability. This analysis, focusing on the modern food systems in developed countries, aims to highlight the unique function of livestock that helps people re-harvest and upcycle crop and food residues generated along the food chain that are otherwise unfit for human consumption. First, human-unusable crop and food residue materials are described in three broad categories based on their characteristics and potential feeding attributes; the magnitude of biomass materials that are already used in routine animal feeding as well as residues that remain as underutilized resources are illustrated using the USA as an example. Then, the research and technology development critically needed for the future is discussed. As the world strives to produce more food with smaller environmental and climate footprints, upcycling the residual biomass via livestock for food production presents a viable pathway toward improved resource use, reduced pollution and enhanced food system efficiency.

INTEGRATING CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS—TOWARDS AGRICULTURAL GREEN DEVELOPMENT

Yong HOU, Oene OENEMA, Fusuo ZHANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第1期   页码 1-14 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021384

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF CROP-LIVESTOCK FARMS IN AFRICA

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第1期

摘要:

Crop-livestock farms across Africa are highly variable due to in agroecological and socioeconomic factors, the latter shaping the demand and supply of livestock products. Crop-livestock farms in Africa in the 20-first century are very different from most mixed farms elsewhere in the world. African crop-livestock farms are smaller in size, have fewer livestock, lower productivity and less dependency on imported feed than farms in most countries of Europe, the Americas and the intensive agricultural systems of Asia. This paper discusses the role African crop-livestock farms have in the broader socio-agricultural economy, and how these are likely to change adapting to pressures brought on by the intensification of food systems. This intensification implies increasing land productivity (more food per hectare), often leading to more livestock heads per farm, producing fertilized feeds in croplands and importing feed supplements from the market. This discussion includes (1) the links between crop yields, soil fertility and crop-livestock integration, (2) the increasing demand for livestock products and the land resources required to meet to this demand, and (3) the opportunities to integrate broader societal goals into the development of crop-livestock farms. There is ample room for development of crop-livestock farms in Africa, and keeping integration as part of the development will help prevent many of the mistakes and environmental problems related to the intensification of livestock production observed elsewhere in the world. This development can integrate biodiversity, climate change adaptation and mitigation to the current goals of increasing productivity and food security. The inclusion of broader goals could help farmers access the level of finance required to implement changes.

VALORIZATION OF LIVESTOCK WASTE AND CARBON NEUTRALITY

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第10卷 第3期   页码 333-340 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2023513

摘要: VALORIZATION OF LIVESTOCK WASTE AND CARBON NEUTRALITY

关键词: WASTE     CARBON     VALORIZATION     NEUTRALITY    

EXPLORING THE RECYCLING OF MANURE FROM URBAN LIVESTOCK FARMS: A CASE STUDY IN ETHIOPIA

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第1期

摘要:

• Livestock manure was the main organic waste in urban and peri-urban areas.

• Manure production will increase by a factor of 3–10 between 2015–2050.

• Only 13%–38% of excreted N by livestock will be recycled in croplands.

• Intensification of urban livestock production greatly increased N surpluses.

• Reducing population growth and increasing livestock productivity needed.

 

Urban population growth is driving the expansion of urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) in developing countries. UPA is providing nutritious food to residents but the manures produced by UPA livestock farms and other wastes are not properly recycled. This paper explores the effects of four scenarios: (1) a reference scenario (business as usual), (2) increased urbanization, (3) UPA intensification, and (4) improved technology, on food-protein self-sufficiency, manure nitrogen (N) recycling and balances for four different zones in a small city (Jimma) in Ethiopia during the period 2015-2050. An N mass flow model with data from farm surveys, field experiments and literature was used. A field experiment was conducted and N use efficiency and N fertilizer replacement values differed among the five types of composts derived from urban livestock manures and kitchen wastes. The N use efficiency and N fertilizer replacement values were used in the N mass flow model.

Livestock manures were the main organic wastes in urban areas, although only 20 to 40% of animal-sourced food consumed was produced in UPA, and only 14 to 19% of protein intake by residents was animal-based. Scenarios indicate that manure production in UPA will increase 3 to 10 times between 2015 and 2050, depending on urbanization and UPA intensification. Only 13 to 38% of manure N will be recycled in croplands. Farm-gate N balances of UPA livestock farms will increase to>1 t·ha1 in 2050. Doubling livestock productivity and feed protein conversion to animal-sourced food will roughly halve manure N production.

Costs of waste recycling were high and indicate the need for government incentives. Results of these senarios are wake-up calls for all stakeholders and indicate alternative pathways.

INTEGRATING CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS—TOWARDS AGRICULTURAL GREEN DEVELOPMENT

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第1期

REINTEGRATION OF CROP-LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS IN EUROPE: AN OVERVIEW

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第1期

摘要:

• ICLS combines the benefits of specialization with increased resilience of the system.

• Clear opportunities but also barriers for ICLS were observed.

• ICLS need to be embedded within future environmental legislation.

• ICLS systems with a range of intensities are needed to support a biodiverse landscape.

 

Ongoing specialization of crop and livestock systems provides socioeconomic benefits to the farmer but has led to greater externalization of environmental costs when compared to mixed farming systems. Better integration of crop and livestock systems offers great potential to rebalance the economic and environmental trade-offs in both systems. The aims of this study were to analyze changes in farm structure and review and evaluate the potential for reintegrating specialized intensive crop and livestock systems, with specific emphasis on identifying the co-benefits and barriers to reintegration. Historically, animals were essential to recycle nutrients in the farming system but this became less important with the availability of synthetic fertilisers. Although mixed farm systems can be economically attractive, benefits of scale combined with socio-economic factors have resulted in on-farm and regional specialization with negative environmental impacts. Reintegration is therefore needed to reduce nutrient surpluses at farm, regional and national levels, and to improve soil quality in intensive cropping systems. Reintegration offers practical and cost-effective options to widen crop rotations and promotes the use of organic inputs and associated benefits, reducing dependency on synthetic fertilisers, biocides and manure processing costs. Circular agriculture goes beyond manure management and requires adaptation of both food production and consumption patterns, matching local capacity to produce with food demand. Consequently, feed transport, greenhouse gas emissions, nutrient surpluses and nutrient losses to the environment can be reduced. It is concluded that reintegration of specialized farms within a region can provide benefits to farmers but may also lead to further intensification of land use. New approaches within a food system context offer alternatives for reintegration, but require strong policy incentives which show clear, tangible and lasting benefits for farmers, the environment and the wider community.

LEVERAGING LIVESTOCK TO PROMOTE A CIRCULAR FOOD SYSTEM

Zhengxia DOU

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第1期   页码 188-192 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2020370

摘要: Livestock provide multifaceted services to human societies worldwide. In developing countries, they are crucial assets and safety net for rural poor, and they provide nutrients-dense food to nourish people. In developed economies, growth in demand for animal-derived food is slowing while attention is growing over the role of livestock farming in an enhanced circular food system for sustainability. This analysis, focusing on the modern food systems in developed countries, aims to highlight the unique function of livestock that helps people re-harvest and upcycle crop and food residues generated along the food chain that are otherwise unfit for human consumption. First, human-unusable crop and food residue materials are described in three broad categories based on their characteristics and potential feeding attributes; the magnitude of biomass materials that are already used in routine animal feeding as well as residues that remain as underutilized resources are illustrated using the USA as an example. Then, the research and technology development critically needed for the future is discussed. As the world strives to produce more food with smaller environmental and climate footprints, upcycling the residual biomass via livestock for food production presents a viable pathway toward improved resource use, reduced pollution and enhanced food system efficiency.

POLICIES AND REGULATIONS FOR PROMOTING MANURE MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN CHINA

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第1期

摘要:

• Manure utilization is hindered by separate specialist crop and livestock production systems.

• Improving manure utilization requires organizations for manure exchange.

• Policies and action plans for improving manure utilization are critically reviewed.

• A manure chain approach with third-party contractors is recommended.

 

Livestock numbers in China have more than tripled between 1980 and 2017. The increase in the number of intensive livestock production systems has created the challenges of decoupled crop and livestock systems, low utilization of manures in croplands, and subsequent environmental pollution. Correspondingly, the government has enacted a series of policies and regulations to increase the sustainability of livestock production. This paper reviews the objectives of these policies and regulations and their impacts on manure management. Since 2017 there have been two policy guides to speed up the appropriate use of manures, three action plans for increasing manure recycling, and one technical guide to calculate nutrient balances. Requirements of manure pollution control and recycling for improved environmental performance of livestock production systems were included in three revised environmental laws. Most recent survey data indicate that the utilization of livestock manures was 70% in 2017, including that used as fertilizer and/or for production of energy. The targets for manure utilization are 75% in 2020 and 90% in 2035. To achieve these targets and promote ‘green livestock production’, additional changes are needed including the use of third-party enterprises that facilitate manure exchange between farms and a more integrated manure nutrient management approach.

CROP-LIVESTOCK INTEGRATION FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN CHINA: THE HISTORY OF STATE POLICY GOALS, REFORM

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第10卷 第4期   页码 518-529 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2023525

摘要:

This paper examines the historical evolution of crop-livestock integration in China with a specific focus on its role in mitigating non-point source pollution. Extensive examination of existing literature has unearthed the roots of crop-livestock integration dating back to the Western Zhou Dynasty (1046 to 771 BCE), ultimately culminating in a multifaceted and intricately interwoven system of rural development policies seen in contemporary China. This paper identifies and characterizes four distinct stages in the historical trajectory of crop-livestock integration: the era of self-sufficient subsistence production in traditional times (1046 BCE to 1948); the period where crop-livestock integration emerged as a pivotal strategy for augmenting grain and meat production under collectivist policies (1949‒1977); the phase marked by the industrialization and expansion of the livestock sector during the early years of economic reforms (1978‒2011); and the present era in which crop-livestock integration is harnessed as a mechanism for pollution control and ecological preservation in contemporary China (2012 to present). This paper illuminates the diverse contributions of crop-livestock integration in different epochs of rural development within China, which contributes to a nuanced and more theoretically grounded comprehension of circular agriculture. This understanding has the potential to be leveraged to promote sustainable rural development in broader contexts.

关键词: crop-livestock integration     non-point source pollution control     nutrient cycling     policy intervention     sustainable development    

Multiple Pollutants from Crop and Livestock Production in the Yangtze River: Status and Challenges

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2023511

摘要:

● Cash crops and livestock production in Yangtze River Basin has grown rapidly.

关键词: Agriculture Green Development     crop production     livestock production     multi-pollutant models     multiple pollutants     Yangtze River Basin    

POLICIES AND REGULATIONS FOR PROMOTING MANURE MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN CHINA

Sha WEI, Zhiping ZHU, Jing ZHAO, David R. CHADWICK, Hongmin DONG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第1期   页码 45-57 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2020369

摘要: Livestock numbers in China have more than tripled between 1980 and 2017. The increase in the number of intensive livestock production systems has created the challenges of decoupled crop and livestock systems, low utilization of manures in croplands, and subsequent environmental pollution. Correspondingly, the government has enacted a series of policies and regulations to increase the sustainability of livestock production. This paper reviews the objectives of these policies and regulations and their impacts on manure management. Since 2017 there have been two policy guides to speed up the appropriate use of manures, three action plans for increasing manure recycling, and one technical guide to calculate nutrient balances. Requirements of manure pollution control and recycling for improved environmental performance of livestock production systems were included in three revised environmental laws. Most recent survey data indicate that the utilization of livestock manures was 70% in 2017, including that used as fertilizer and/or for production of energy. The targets for manure utilization are 75% in 2020 and 90% in 2035. To achieve these targets and promote ‘green livestock production’, additional changes are needed including the use of third-party enterprises that facilitate manure exchange between farms and a more integrated manure nutrient management approach.

关键词: integrated crop and livestock production     manure utilization     policy recommendations     sustainability     third-party service contractors    

GREEN AGRICULTURE AND BLUE WATER IN CHINA: REINTEGRATING CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION FOR CLEAN WATER

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第1期

摘要:

• AGD aims for a green environment, sustainable agriculture and clean water.

• Presenting examples of the impact of agriculture on water quality.

• Presenting examples of solutions for sustainable agriculture and improved water quality.

• Integration of livestock and cropping systems is possible on a farm or among farms.

• Providing recommendations for further development of sustainable agriculture.

 

Crop and livestock production are essential to maintain food security. In China, crop and livestock production were integrated in the past. Today, small backyard systems are still integrated but the larger livestock farms are landless and largely geographically separated from crop production systems. As a result, there is less recycling of animal manures and there are lower nutrient use efficiencies in the Chinese food production systems. This, in turn, results in considerable losses of nutrients, causing water pollution and harmful algal blooms in Chinese lakes, rivers and seas. To turn the tide, there is a need for agricultural “green” development for food production through reintegrating crop and livestock production. An additional wish is to turn the Chinese water systems “blue” to secure clean water for current and future generations. In this paper, current knowledge is summarized to identify promising interventions for reintegrating crop and livestock production toward clean water. Technical, social, economic, policy and environmental interventions are addressed and examples are given. The paper highlights recommended next steps to achieve “green” agriculture and “blue” water in China.

畜禽养殖废弃物还田利用模式发展战略

贾伟,臧建军,张强,李德发

《中国工程科学》 2017年 第19卷 第4期   页码 130-137 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2017.04.021

摘要:

本文介绍我国畜禽养殖废弃物还田利用模式发展概况,分析养殖废弃物循环利用产业发展的问题,探讨下一步的发展战略。总结发现,多年来国内外在探索畜禽养殖废弃物还田利用模式、农田适宜载畜量参数等方面取得了重要的进展,但仍然存在种养结合养分不平衡、各种处理过程养分损失大、农田合理施用粪肥原则缺失等问题。下一步的研究应该以“还田利用,环境友好”为目标,引入种养结合粪便养分管理理念,开展畜禽养殖废弃物的收集—贮存—处理—还田;开展包括优化还田安全利用技术、种养循环过程温室气体减排、农田对养殖废弃物合理消纳量定量、减少氮磷养分损失避免面源污染等方面的研究,同时在政策上引导畜禽养殖废弃物的高效资源化利用。

关键词: 规模化     养殖场     粪便     废水     种养结合     养分    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

LEVERAGING LIVESTOCK TO PROMOTE A CIRCULAR FOOD SYSTEM

期刊论文

INTEGRATING CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS—TOWARDS AGRICULTURAL GREEN DEVELOPMENT

Yong HOU, Oene OENEMA, Fusuo ZHANG

期刊论文

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF CROP-LIVESTOCK FARMS IN AFRICA

期刊论文

VALORIZATION OF LIVESTOCK WASTE AND CARBON NEUTRALITY

期刊论文

EXPLORING THE RECYCLING OF MANURE FROM URBAN LIVESTOCK FARMS: A CASE STUDY IN ETHIOPIA

期刊论文

INTEGRATING CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS—TOWARDS AGRICULTURAL GREEN DEVELOPMENT

期刊论文

REINTEGRATION OF CROP-LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS IN EUROPE: AN OVERVIEW

期刊论文

LEVERAGING LIVESTOCK TO PROMOTE A CIRCULAR FOOD SYSTEM

Zhengxia DOU

期刊论文

POLICIES AND REGULATIONS FOR PROMOTING MANURE MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN CHINA

期刊论文

CROP-LIVESTOCK INTEGRATION FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN CHINA: THE HISTORY OF STATE POLICY GOALS, REFORM

期刊论文

Multiple Pollutants from Crop and Livestock Production in the Yangtze River: Status and Challenges

期刊论文

POLICIES AND REGULATIONS FOR PROMOTING MANURE MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN CHINA

Sha WEI, Zhiping ZHU, Jing ZHAO, David R. CHADWICK, Hongmin DONG

期刊论文

GREEN AGRICULTURE AND BLUE WATER IN CHINA: REINTEGRATING CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION FOR CLEAN WATER

期刊论文

INTEGRATED CROP-LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS: LESSONS FROM NEW YORK, BRITISH COLUMBIA, AND THE SOUTH-EASTERN UNITED

期刊论文

畜禽养殖废弃物还田利用模式发展战略

贾伟,臧建军,张强,李德发

期刊论文