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Performance-based seismic assessment of a historical masonry arch bridge: Effect of pulse-like excitations

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》   页码 855-869 doi: 10.1007/s11709-023-0972-z

摘要: Seismic analysis of historical masonry bridges is important for authorities in all countries hosting such cultural heritage assets. The masonry arch bridge investigated in this study was built during the Roman period and is on the island of Rhodes, in Greece. Fifteen seismic records were considered and categorized as far-field, pulse-like near-field, and non-pulse-like near-field. The earthquake excitations were scaled to a target spectrum, and nonlinear time-history analyses were performed in the transverse direction. The performance levels were introduced based on the pushover curve, and the post-earthquake damage state of the bridge was examined. According to the results, pulse-like near-field events are more damaging than non-pulse-like near-field ground motions. Additionally the bridge is more vulnerable to far-field excitations than near-field events. Furthermore, the structure will suffer extensive post-earthquake damage and must be retrofitted.

关键词: masonry arch bridges     seismic behavior     modal properties     pulse-like records     nonlinear time history analysis    

中国钢管混凝土拱桥 Review

郑皆连, 王建军

《工程(英文)》 2018年 第4卷 第1期   页码 143-155 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2017.12.003

摘要:
近20 多年来,中国钢管混凝土拱桥和以钢管混凝土为骨架的混凝土拱桥获得大发展,跨径增大很快,在桥梁发展史上罕见。高速公路和高速铁路的大规模建设为大跨径拱桥的发展提供了需求,设计及施工技术的进步为修建大跨径拱桥提供了可能。作为这段历史的参与者,我们通过本文来介绍中国钢管混凝土拱桥和以钢管混凝土为劲性骨架的混凝土拱桥的发展状况及主要创新技术,内容主要包括钢管混凝土拱桥关键建设技术,如钢管拱桁设计、制造与安装,管内混凝土制备与灌注等技术,以世界最大跨度钢管混凝土拱桥——合江长江一桥为工程实例进行了详细介绍;以及劲性骨架混凝土拱桥的主要建设技术,如斜拉扣挂悬拼施工、斜拉扣索调载、拱肋外包混凝土浇注等,并对广西邕宁邕江大桥和云桂铁路南盘江特大桥两个工程实例进行了介绍。中国钢管混凝土拱桥取得了同类桥型世界领先的地位,随着关键技术的持续创新,将成为推动拱桥发展突破的新领军者。

关键词: 钢管混凝土拱桥     劲性骨架混凝土拱桥     斜拉扣挂悬拼     真空辅助灌注管内混凝土     斜拉扣索调载    

Confined masonry as practical seismic construction alternative–the experience from the 2014 Cephalonia

Fillitsa KARANTONI, Stavroula PANTAZOPOULOU, Athanasios GANAS

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第3期   页码 270-290 doi: 10.1007/s11709-017-0390-1

摘要:

During August 1953 three strong earthquakes of magnitude ranging from 6.3 to 7.2 shook the Ionian Island of Cephalonia (Kefalonia), Greece, and destroyed almost the entire building stock of the Island which consisted primarily of traditional unreinforced masonry (URM) houses. The authorities went on to restructuring of the building stock, using a structural system that is most like what is known today as confined masonry. They designed about 14 types of one- to two-storey buildings providing the engineers with detailed construction plans. These buildings are known as “Arogi” buildings (Arogi in Greek meaning Aid). On the 24th of January and 3rd of February 2014, two earthquakes of magnitude 6.1 and 6.0 struck the island, causing significant soil damages, developing excessively high ground accelerations. Surprisingly, no damage was reported in the “Arogi” buildings. The seismic behavior of the buildings is examined by FEM linear analysis and it is compared to that of URM structures. Computed results illustrate that the displacements of identical URM buildings would be about twice the magnitudes observed in the corresponding “Arogi” ones, with the implication that the earthquake sequence of 2014 would have caused critical damage should the type of structure be of the URM type. Furthermore, it is illustrated that this low cost alternative method of construction is a very effective means of producing earthquake resilient structures, whereas further reduction of seismic displacement may be achieved in the order of 50% with commensurate effects on damage potential, when reinforced slabs are used to replace the timber roofs.

关键词: Cephalonia     confined masonry     comparative FEM analysis     unreinforced masonry     seismic damage    

Experimental study on the compressive performance of new sandwich masonry walls

Jianzhuang XIAO, Jie PU, Yongzhong HU

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第2期   页码 154-163 doi: 10.1007/s11709-013-0203-0

摘要: Sandwich masonry wall, namely, multi-leaf masonry wall, is widely applied as energy-saving wall since the interlayer between the two outer leaves can act as insulation layer. New types of sandwich walls keep appearing in research and application, and due to their unique connection patterns, experimental studies should be performed to investigate the mechanical behavior, especially the compressive performance. 3 new types of sandwich masonry wall were investigated in this paper, and 3 different technical measures were considered to guarantee the cooperation between the two leaves of the walls. Based on the compression tests of 13 specimens, except for some damage patterns similar with the conventional masonry walls, several new failure patterns are found due to unique connection construction details. Comparisons were made between the tested compression capacity and the theoretical one which was calculated according to the Chinese Code for Design of Masonry Structures. The results indicate that the contributions of the 3 technical measures are different. The modification coefficient ( ) was suggested to evaluate the contribution of the technical measures on the compression capacity, and then a formula was proposed to evaluate the design compression capacity of the new sandwich masonry walls.

关键词: sandwich wall     insulation wall     connection     compressive performance     compression test    

Mechanical properties characterization of different types of masonry infill walls

André FURTADO, Hugo RODRIGUES, António ARÊDE, Humberto VARUM

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第2期   页码 411-434 doi: 10.1007/s11709-019-0602-y

摘要: It is remarkable, the recent advances concerning the development of numerical modeling frameworks to simulate the infill panels’ seismic behavior. However, there is a lack of experimental data of their mechanical properties, which are of full importance to calibrate the numerical models. The primary objective of this paper is to present an extensive experimental campaign of mechanical characterization tests of infill masonry walls made with three different types of masonry units: lightweight vertical hollow concrete blocks and hollow clay bricks. Four different types of experimental tests were carried out, namely: compression strength tests, diagonal tensile strength tests, and flexural strength tests parallel and perpendicular to the horizontal bed joints. A total amount of 80 tests were carried out and are reported in the present paper. The second objective of this study was to compare the mechanical properties of as-built and existing infill walls. The results presented and discussed herein, will be in terms of strain-stress curves and damages observed within the tests. It was observed a fragile behavior in the panels made with hollow clay horizontal bricks, without propagation of cracks. The plaster increased the flexural strength by 57%.

关键词: masonry infill walls     experimental characterization     compression strength     shear diagonal strength     flexural strength    

大跨度桥梁抗风技术挑战与基础研究

项海帆,葛耀君

《中国工程科学》 2011年 第13卷 第9期   页码 8-21

摘要:

以我国30年大跨度桥梁的快速发展为研究背景,对3种大跨度桥梁的抗风技术挑战进行了基础性研究和应用性研究,着重探讨了悬索桥的颤振性能及其控制、斜拉桥风振性能与拉索风雨振控制、拱式桥涡激共振及其控制、特大桥梁风振精细化理论等一系列抗风关键问题。研究结果表明:悬索桥的颤振稳定性跨径上限约为1 500 m,超过甚至接近这一上限时,必须采取措施改善加劲梁的抗风稳定性;千米级大跨度斜拉桥仍具有足够高的颤振临界风速,其主要抗风问题是长拉索的风雨振动;大跨径拱桥除了个别有涡振问题之外,还没有受到结构抗风性能的影响。文章还提出了三维桥梁颤振精确分析的全模态方法、任意斜风作用下桥梁抖振频域分析方法、基于二阶矩理论和首次超越理论的桥梁颤振和抖振可靠性评价方法,揭示了桥梁颤振演化规律、驱动机理和控制原理。

关键词: 悬索桥     斜拉桥     拱桥     颤振     抖振     涡振    

Seismic safety evaluation methodology for masonry building and retrofitting using splint and bandage

Pravin Kumar Venkat Rao PADALU; Yogendra SINGH

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第4期   页码 478-505 doi: 10.1007/s11709-022-0817-1

摘要: The paper presents a seismic safety assessment of unreinforced masonry (URM) building using two approaches. The first approach uses the ‘Pier Analysis’ method, based on the concept of equivalent lateral stiffness, where in-plane and out-of-plane actions are considered independently. The second approach is developed with the program SAP2000, where the linear response is evaluated using continuum ‘finite element modelling’ (FEM). Both methods are compared to evaluate the safety of wall piers and the differences in the outcomes under combined gravitational and lateral seismic forces. The analysis results showed that few wall elements are unsafe in in-plane and out-of-plane tension. It is also observed that the pier analysis method is conservative compared to FEM, but can be used as a simplified and quick tool in design offices for safety assessment, with reasonable accuracy. To safeguard the URM wall piers under lateral loads, a retrofitting technique is adopted by providing vertical and horizontal belts called splints and bandages, respectively, using welded wire mesh (WWM) reinforcement. The study using the ‘Pier Analysis’ shows that the lateral load capacity of unsafe URM piers can be enhanced up to 3.67 times and made safe using the applied retrofitting technique. Further, the retrofitting design methodology and recommendations for application procedures to on-site URM buildings are discussed in detail.

关键词: unreinforced masonry     seismic in-plane and out-of-plane forces     pier analysis     finite element modelling     splint and bandage technique with wire mesh    

Modelling autogenous expansion for magnesia concrete in arch dams

JIN Feng, LUO Xiaoqing, ZHANG Chuhan, ZHANG Guoxin

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2008年 第2卷 第3期   页码 211-218 doi: 10.1007/s11709-008-0025-7

摘要: Magnesia Concrete is a kind of expansive concrete used in Chinese hydraulic engineering more and more widely. To evaluate the effects of autogenous expansion on the stresses of arch dams, a simple model of autogenous expansion for Magnesia Concrete in dam engineering is presented. This model is based on three assumptions: 1) the total amount of autogenous expansion of Magnesia Concrete is related only to the properties of materials and mixing of concrete; 2) the autogenous expansion of Magnesia Concrete is irreversible due to the irreversibility of hydration reaction of Magnesia in the concrete; 3) the autogenous expansion strain rates of Magnesia Concrete bear a relation between temperature and residual Magnesia per unit volume of concrete. The model is verified by some experimental data of autogenous expansion of Magnesia Concrete and field-measured data of an arch dam in China. Embedded into finite element arch dam simulation software, this model is employed to simulate the effects of autogenous expansion of Magnesia Concrete in hydraulic engineering.

关键词: field-measured     irreversibility     temperature     irreversible     element arch    

Analysis of arch dam deformations

Franz PERNER, Pius OBERNHUBER,

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第1期   页码 102-108 doi: 10.1007/s11709-010-0012-7

摘要: Predicting “regular” dam deformations for prevailing conditions and comparing them with observed deformations is an essential part of dam surveillance. In many cases prediction and comparison are carried out automatically and an alarm is triggered in the case of larger deviations.The main contributors to the deformations of arch dams are water loading and the fluctuation of concrete temperature. In general, the deformations exhibit an instantaneous elastic part, a time dependent reversible part and an irreversible part. Prediction of dam deformations can be based on deterministic models, purely statistical models or so-called hybrid models, which are a combination of the first two. Deterministic models rely on static analyses, statistical models on the statistical analysis of previous deformation data.For annual reservoirs, both water loading and temperature vary in cycles over a period of one year and it is extremely difficult to identify the various factors contributing to an observed deformation. This is particularly true for time-dependent reversible displacements due to the water loading and the portion caused by temperature variation.The present article deals with the analysis of arch dam deformations based on hybrid models. Particular attention is given to the analysis of the deformations due to temperature fluctuation and to the long-term deformations. The proposed procedure is employed for the analysis of the deformations of the 186 m high Zillergruendl arch dam.

关键词: arch dam     analysis     Zillergruendl     concrete temperature     hybrid model    

Predicting resilient modulus of recycled concrete and clay masonry blends for pavement applications using

Mosbeh R. KALOOP, Alaa R. GABR, Sherif M. EL-BADAWY, Ali ARISHA, Sayed SHWALLY, Jong WAN HU

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第6期   页码 1379-1392 doi: 10.1007/s11709-019-0562-2

摘要: To date, very few researchers employed the Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) in predicting the resilient modulus ( ) of Unbound Granular Materials (UGMs). This paper focused on the development of a LSSVM model to predict the of recycled materials for pavement applications and comparison with other different models such as Regression, and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Blends of Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCA) with Recycled Clay Masonry (RCM) with proportions of 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 55/45, 40/60, 20/80, and 0/100 by the total aggregate mass were evaluated for use as UGMs. RCA/RCM materials were collected from dumps on the sides of roads around Mansoura city, Egypt. The investigated blends were evaluated experimentally by routine and advanced tests and the values were determined by Repeated Load Triaxial Test (RLTT). Regression, ANN, and LSSVM models were utilized and compared in predicting the of the investigated blends optimizing the best design model. Results showed that the ’s of the investigated RCA/RCM blends were generally increased with the decrease in RCM proportion. Statistical analyses were utilized for evaluating the performance of the developed models and the inputs sensitivity parameters. Eventually, the results approved that the LSSVM model can be used as a novel tool to estimate the of the investigated RCA/RCM blends.

关键词: Least Square Support Vector Machine     Artificial Neural Network     resilient modulus     Recycled Concrete Aggregate     Recycled Clay Masonry    

Shape design of arch dams under load uncertainties with robust optimization

Fengjie TAN, Tom LAHMER

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第4期   页码 852-862 doi: 10.1007/s11709-019-0522-x

摘要: Due to an increased need in hydro-electricity, water storage, and flood protection, it is assumed that a series of new dams will be build throughout the world. The focus of this paper is on the non-probabilistic-based design of new arch-type dams by applying means of robust design optimization (RDO). This type of optimization takes into account uncertainties in the loads and in the material properties of the structure. As classical procedures of probabilistic-based optimization under uncertainties, such as RDO and reliability-based design optimization (RBDO), are in general computationally expensive and rely on estimates of the system’s response variance, we will not follow a full-probabilistic approach but work with predefined confidence levels. This leads to a bi-level optimization program where the volume of the dam is optimized under the worst combination of the uncertain parameters. As a result, robust and reliable designs are obtained and the result is independent from any assumptions on stochastic properties of the random variables in the model. The optimization of an arch-type dam is realized here by a robust optimization method under load uncertainty, where hydraulic and thermal loads are considered. The load uncertainty is modeled as an ellipsoidal expression. Comparing with any traditional deterministic optimization method, which only concerns the minimum objective value and offers a solution candidate close to limit-states, the RDO method provides a robust solution against uncertainty. To reduce the computational cost, a ranking strategy and an approximation model are further involved to do a preliminary screening. By this means, the robust design can generate an improved arch dam structure that ensures both safety and serviceability during its lifetime.

关键词: arch dam     shape optimization     robust optimization     load uncertainty     approximation model    

Numerical simulation of damage in high arch dam due to earthquake

Hong ZHONG , Gao LIN , Hongjun LI

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第3期   页码 316-322 doi: 10.1007/s11709-009-0039-9

摘要: Based on the assumption that concrete is macroscopic homogeneous, the cracking evolution process and damage mode of high arch dams are studied in consideration of the heterogeneity of concrete in mesoscale. The bilinear damage evolution model and the damage evolution model expressed in power function with descending section are adopted to combine with the Mohr-Coulomb criterion to investigate the crack development and fracture mode of high arch dams under the action of an earthquake. The analysis result of a high arch dam in China under design shows that cracks that take place in concrete are caused by excessive tensile stress. The cracks initiate at the middle of the dam top and distribute at the upper half of the dam while the rest of the parts remain intact. This conclusion agrees with the model test result.

关键词: mesoscopic heterogeneity     damage simulation in earthquakes     arch dam    

Key problems and solutions in arch dam heightening

Zuoguang FU, Yunlong HE, Sheng SU

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第1期   页码 98-104 doi: 10.1007/s11709-010-0004-7

摘要: The dam heightening, which is an effective way to increase reservoir volume, has been paid close attention by engineers. Three problems should be dealt with when an arch dam needs to be heightened: stress state getting worse at dam heel, cracking on new added concrete dam surface, and weak bonding between new added concrete and old dam. Taking Geba arch dam as an example, these problems are examined in details through simulation analysis by the finite element method. The tensile stresses on dam’s surface and joint face that have certain relations to the dam heightening can be controlled by some measures.

关键词: arch dam     heighten     tensile stress     finite element method    

Control mode selection for modal control of long-span arch bridge

Zhengying LI, Zhengliang LI,

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第4期   页码 401-406 doi: 10.1007/s11709-009-0052-z

摘要: For seismic control of arch bridge, a model reduction of long-span arch bridge was implemented based on modal analysis. As for the critical mode selection, an approach based on the maximum modal displacement was presented. This approach takes into consideration the effect of external seismic excitation and is more reasonable than only considering dynamic bridge characteristics based on a modal contribution ratio. The time domain and frequency domain analysis method were used to verify the simplified model of the Nimu arch bridge in Tibet as an example. The numerical results show that the method of maximal modal displacement better analyze long-span arch bridge when multisupport seismic excitation must be considered. The reduced-order system also is more in line with the performance of the original model.

关键词: selection     reduced-order     excitation     long-span     simplified    

Multiple damage detection in complex bridges based on strain energy extracted from single point measurement

Alireza ARABHA NAJAFABADI, Farhad DANESHJOO, Hamid Reza AHMADI

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第3期   页码 722-730 doi: 10.1007/s11709-020-0624-5

摘要: Strain Energy of the structure can be changed with the damage at the damage location. The accurate detection of the damage location using this index in a force system is dependent on the degree of accuracy in determining the structure deformation function before and after damage. The use of modal-based methods to identify damage in complex bridges is always associated with problems due to the need to consider the effects of higher modes and the adverse effect of operational conditions on the extraction of structural modal parameters. In this paper, the deformation of the structure was determined by the concept of influence line using the Betti-Maxwell theory. Then two damage detection indicators were developed based on strain energy variations. These indices were presented separately for bending and torsion changes. Finite element analysis of a five-span concrete curved bridge was done to validate the stated methods. Damage was simulated by decreasing stiffness at different sections of the deck. The response regarding displacement of a point on the deck was measured along each span by passing a moving load on the bridge at very low speeds. Indicators of the strain energy extracted from displacement influence line and the strain energy extracted from the rotational displacement influence line (SERIL) were calculated for the studied bridge. The results show that the proposed methods have well identified the location of the damage by significantly reducing the number of sensors required to record the response. Also, the location of symmetric damages is detected with high resolution using SERIL.

关键词: damage detection     strain energy     influence line     complex bridges     rotation displacement    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Performance-based seismic assessment of a historical masonry arch bridge: Effect of pulse-like excitations

期刊论文

中国钢管混凝土拱桥

郑皆连, 王建军

期刊论文

Confined masonry as practical seismic construction alternative–the experience from the 2014 Cephalonia

Fillitsa KARANTONI, Stavroula PANTAZOPOULOU, Athanasios GANAS

期刊论文

Experimental study on the compressive performance of new sandwich masonry walls

Jianzhuang XIAO, Jie PU, Yongzhong HU

期刊论文

Mechanical properties characterization of different types of masonry infill walls

André FURTADO, Hugo RODRIGUES, António ARÊDE, Humberto VARUM

期刊论文

大跨度桥梁抗风技术挑战与基础研究

项海帆,葛耀君

期刊论文

Seismic safety evaluation methodology for masonry building and retrofitting using splint and bandage

Pravin Kumar Venkat Rao PADALU; Yogendra SINGH

期刊论文

Modelling autogenous expansion for magnesia concrete in arch dams

JIN Feng, LUO Xiaoqing, ZHANG Chuhan, ZHANG Guoxin

期刊论文

Analysis of arch dam deformations

Franz PERNER, Pius OBERNHUBER,

期刊论文

Predicting resilient modulus of recycled concrete and clay masonry blends for pavement applications using

Mosbeh R. KALOOP, Alaa R. GABR, Sherif M. EL-BADAWY, Ali ARISHA, Sayed SHWALLY, Jong WAN HU

期刊论文

Shape design of arch dams under load uncertainties with robust optimization

Fengjie TAN, Tom LAHMER

期刊论文

Numerical simulation of damage in high arch dam due to earthquake

Hong ZHONG , Gao LIN , Hongjun LI

期刊论文

Key problems and solutions in arch dam heightening

Zuoguang FU, Yunlong HE, Sheng SU

期刊论文

Control mode selection for modal control of long-span arch bridge

Zhengying LI, Zhengliang LI,

期刊论文

Multiple damage detection in complex bridges based on strain energy extracted from single point measurement

Alireza ARABHA NAJAFABADI, Farhad DANESHJOO, Hamid Reza AHMADI

期刊论文