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Numerical simulation and analysis of periodically oscillating pressure characteristics of inviscid flow

Yan GU, Yonglin JU

《能源前沿(英文)》 2012年 第6卷 第1期   页码 21-28 doi: 10.1007/s11708-012-0173-2

摘要: Floating liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants are gaining increasing attention in offshore energy exploitation. The effects of the periodically oscillatory motion on the fluid flow in all processes on the offshore plant are very complicated and require detailed thermodynamic and hydrodynamic analyses. In this paper, numerical simulations are conducted by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code combined with user defined function (UDF) in order to understand the periodically oscillating pressure characteristics of inviscid flow in the rolling pipe. The computational model of the circular pipe flow is established with the excitated rolling motion, at the excitated frequencies of 1–4 rad/s, and the excitated amplitudes of 3°–15°, respectively. The influences of flow velocities and excitated conditions on pressure characteristics, including mean pressure, frequency and amplitude are systematically investigated. It is found that the pressure fluctuation of the inviscid flow remains almost constant at different flow velocities. The amplitude of the pressure fluctuation increases with the increasing of the excitated amplitude, and decreases with the increasing of the excitated frequency. It is also found that the period of the pressure fluctuation varies with the excitated frequency. Furthermore, theoretical analyses of the flow in the rolling circular pipe are conducted and the results are found in qualitative agreement with the numerical simulations.

关键词: pressure fluctuation     rolling     floating production storage and offloading unit for liquefied natural gas (LNG-FPSO) offshore    

A novel high-temperature and high-pressure hydraulic pump based on mononeuron control

Linhui ZHAO, Xin FANG

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第4卷 第2期   页码 219-223 doi: 10.1007/s11465-009-0024-y

摘要: Based on structures and characteristics of traditional hydraulic pumps, this paper proposes a novel high-temperature and high-pressure hydraulic pump (HHHP) that can work under 150°C and 28 MPa to overcome problems of traditional high-temperature plunger pumps. The HHHP is designed with the structure of mechanical division and double cylinder parallel. The control signals of two cylinders are two separate triangle waveforms with 90° phase difference. Because the output waveforms of two cylinders have the same characteristics as the control signals, the HHHP can obtain a stable output after two separate waveforms are superposed. A mononeuron self-adaptive PID control algorithm is also improved by modifying parameters and . Two improved controllers are used to control the two cylinders, respectively, making two displacements of plungers match each other. Therefore, reduced fluctuations and stable pressure output is obtained. Besides simulation, tests on the built prototype test system are carried out to verify the performance of HHHP. Results show that the improved control approach can limit fluctuations to a lower level and the HHHP system attains good outputs under different signal periods and different pressures.

关键词: mononeuron PID control     hydraulic pump     pressure fluctuation    

Power fluctuation and power loss of wind turbines due to wind shear and tower shadow

Binrong WEN, Sha WEI, Kexiang WEI, Wenxian YANG, Zhike PENG, Fulei CHU

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第12卷 第3期   页码 321-332 doi: 10.1007/s11465-017-0434-1

摘要:

The magnitude and stability of power output are two key indices of wind turbines. This study investigates the effects of wind shear and tower shadow on power output in terms of power fluctuation and power loss to estimate the capacity and quality of the power generated by a wind turbine. First, wind speed models, particularly the wind shear model and the tower shadow model, are described in detail. The widely accepted tower shadow model is modified in view of the cone-shaped towers of modern large-scale wind turbines. Power fluctuation and power loss due to wind shear and tower shadow are analyzed by performing theoretical calculations and case analysis within the framework of a modified version of blade element momentum theory. Results indicate that power fluctuation is mainly caused by tower shadow, whereas power loss is primarily induced by wind shear. Under steady wind conditions, power loss can be divided into wind farm loss and rotor loss. Wind farm loss is constant at 3α(3α−1)R2/(8H2). By contrast, rotor loss is strongly influenced by the wind turbine control strategies and wind speed. That is, when the wind speed is measured in a region where a variable-speed controller works, the rotor loss stabilizes around zero, but when the wind speed is measured in a region where the blade pitch controller works, the rotor loss increases as the wind speed intensifies. The results of this study can serve as a reference for accurate power estimation and strategy development to mitigate the fluctuations in aerodynamic loads and power output due to wind shear and tower shadow.

关键词: wind turbine     wind shear     tower shadow     power fluctuation     power loss    

A novel light fluctuation spectrum method for in-line particle sizing

Shouxuan QIN, Xiaoshu CAI, Li MA

《能源前沿(英文)》 2012年 第6卷 第1期   页码 89-97 doi: 10.1007/s11708-012-0176-z

摘要: This paper discusses two problems in in-line particle sizing when using light fluctuation method. First, by retrieving the ratio of particle concentrations at different time, the intensity of incident light is obtained. There exists narrow error between the calculated and pre-detected value of the intensity of incident light. Secondly, by combining spectrum analysis with Gregory’s theory, a multi-sub-size zone model is proposed, with which the relationship between the distribution of turbidity and the particle size distribution (PSD) can be established, and an algorithm developed to determine the distribution of turbidity. Experiments conducted in the laboratory indicate that the measured size distribution of pulverized coal conforms well with the imaging result.

关键词: in-line measurement     particle size distribution (PSD)     incident light intensity     particle concentration     light fluctuation    

基于同步波动原理的抗冲蚀弹性涂层设计

郭源君,肖华林,徐大清,李文斌

《中国工程科学》 2008年 第10卷 第9期   页码 60-63

摘要:

基于过流面冲蚀波纹形貌特征与流体边界层扰动波参数的对应关系,提出了实现弹性涂层边壁与边界层扰动波的同步波动,从而变边壁被动承受粒子冲击为主动回避与粒子的碰撞的抗冲蚀设计思想;分析了实现弹性涂层边壁与边界层扰动波同步波动的条件,并由此确定出弹性涂层的材料常数。

关键词: 冲蚀     边界层     弹性边壁     弹性涂层     同步波动    

Optimal portfolio design of energy storage devices with financial and physical right market

《能源前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第1期   页码 95-104 doi: 10.1007/s11708-021-0788-2

摘要: With the continuous development of the spot market, in the multi-stage power market environment with the day-ahead market and right market, the study associated with the portfolio of energy storage devices requires that attention should be paid to transmission congestion and power congestion. To maximize the profit of energy storage and avoid the imbalance of power supply and consumption and the risk of node price fluctuation caused by transmission congestion, this paper presents a portfolio strategy of energy storage devices with financial/physical contracts. First, the concepts of financial/physical transmission rights and financial/physical storage rights are proposed. Then, the portfolio models of financial contract and physical contract are established with the conditional value-at-risk to measure the risks. Finally, the portfolio models are verified through the test data of the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) electric power spot market, and the comparison between the risk aversion of portfolios based on financial/physical contract with the portfolio of the market without rights. The simulation results show that the portfolio models proposed in this paper can effectively avoid the risk of market price fluctuations.

关键词: portfolio     node price fluctuation     transmission right     energy storage right     risk aversion    

Deviation correction strategy for the earth pressure balance shield based on shield–soil interactions

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第17卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11465-022-0676-4

摘要: The control system presently used in shield posture rectification is based on driver experience, which is marginally reliable. The study of the related theory is flawed. Therefore, a decision-making approach for the deviation correction trajectory and posture rectification load for an earth pressure balance (EPB) shield is proposed. A calculation model of posture rectification load of an EPB shield is developed by considering the interactions among the cutter head, shield shell, and ground. The additional position change during the shield attitude correction is highlighted. The posture rectification loads and shield behaviors results can be solved by the proposed method. The influences of the stratum distribution (i.e., bedrock height in the upper-soft and lower-hard strata) on shield behaviors and posture rectification loads are analyzed. Results indicated that the increase of pitch angle in the upper-soft and lower-hard strata causes a sharp rise in vertical displacement. The bedrock height increases the magnitudes of the required posture rectification moments when hr/D > 0.5. For a tunnel with hr/D ≤ 0.5, the variation of hr/D has little effect on the posture rectification moments. Finally, the posture rectifying curves based on the theoretical model are compared with the target ones based on the double circular arc interpolation method. The required results can be obtained regardless of the soil–rock compound stratum distribution. The maximum rectification moment in the rock layer is almost 12.6 times that in the soil layer. Overall, this study provides a valuable reference for moment determination and the trajectory prediction of posture rectification in compound strata.

关键词: additional position change     deviation correction trajectory     earth pressure balance shield     mechanical model     posture rectification    

Combustion instability detection using the wavelet detail of pressure fluctuations

JI Junjie, LUO Yonghao

《能源前沿(英文)》 2008年 第2卷 第1期   页码 116-120 doi: 10.1007/s11708-008-0019-0

摘要: A combustion instability detection method that uses the wavelet detail of combustion pressure fluctuations is put forward. To confirm this method, combustion pressure fluctuations in a stoker boiler are recorded at stable and unstable combustion with a pressure transducer. Daubechies one-order wavelet is chosen to obtain the wavelet details for comparison. It shows that the wavelet approximation indicates the general pressure change in the furnace, and the wavelet detail magnitude is consistent with the intensity of turbulence and combustion noise. The magnitude of the wavelet detail is nearly constant when the combustion is stable, however, it will fluctuate much when the combustion is unstable.

关键词: comparison     wavelet approximation     pressure transducer     general pressure     consistent    

Hydraulic fracturing pressure of concentric double-layered cylinder in cohesive soil

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第4期   页码 937-947 doi: 10.1007/s11709-021-0754-4

摘要: This study aims to investigate hydrofracturing in double-layered soil through theoretical and experimental analysis, as multilayered soils where the difference in mechanical properties exists are generally encountered in practical engineering. First, an analytical solution for fracturing pressure in two different concentric regions of soil was presented based on the cavity expansion theory. Then, several triaxial hydraulic fracturing tests were carried out to validate the analytical solution. The comparison between the experimental and analytical results indicates the remarkable accuracy of the derived formula, and the following conclusions were also obtained. First, there is a linear relationship between the fracturing pressure and confining pressure in concentric double-layered cohesive soil. Second, when the internal-layer soil is softer than the external-layer soil, the presence of internal soil on the fracturing pressure approximately brings the weakening effect, and the greater strength distinction between the two layers, the greater the weakening effect. Third, when the internal-layer soil is harder than the external-layer soil, the existence of the internal-layer soil has a strengthening effect on the fracturing pressure regardless of the proportion of internal-layer soil. Moreover, the influence of strength distinction between the two layers on the fracturing pressure is significant when the proportion of internal-layer soil is less than half, while it’s limited when the proportion is more than half. The proposed solution is potentially useful for geotechnical problems involving aspects of cohesive soil layering in a composite formation.

关键词: hydraulic fracturing pressure     layered     cavity expansion theory     triaxial fracturing test     cohesive soil    

“Partial pressures” of humid air in wide pressure and temperature ranges

Zidong WANG, Hanping CHEN, Shilie WENG

《能源前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第4期   页码 511-517 doi: 10.1007/s11708-013-0281-7

摘要: “Partial pressure” in humid air is a question very much concerned by scientists and no satisfactory answer has been found to date. This paper proposes a novel method to obtain the “partial pressures” of the water vapor and dry air in humid air. The results obtained by the proposed method are quite different from that obtained by Dalton’s partial pressure law. The fundamental behaviors of water vapor and dry air are studied in depth in wide pressure and temperature ranges. Semi-permeable membrane models are proposed and applied for both saturated and unsaturated humid air. “Improvement factors” are developed to quantitatively describe the magnitude of the interaction between dissimilar molecules. One discovery is that the “partial pressure” of the water vapor in saturated humid air equals , rather than ( · ) which was formerly believed. The other is that the interaction between dissimilar molecules may be omitted when temperature is above “cutting-off temperature” for unsaturated humid air. This paper satisfactorily answers the quest of “partial pressures” in humid air from a new perspective.

关键词: partial pressure     Dalton’s partial pressure law     humid air     saturated     unsaturated    

Upper bound solution to seismic active earth pressure of submerged backfill subjected to partial drainage

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第6期   页码 1480-1493 doi: 10.1007/s11709-021-0776-y

摘要: In waterfront geotechnical engineering, seismic and drainage conditions must be considered in the design of retaining structures. This paper proposes a general analytical method to evaluate the seismic active earth pressure on a retaining wall with backfill subjected to partial steady seepage flow under seismic conditions. The method comprises the following steps: i) determination of the total head, ii) upper bound solution of seismic active earth thrust, and iii) deduction for the earth pressure distribution. The determination of total head h(x,z) relies on the Fourier series expansions, and the expressions of the seismic active earth thrust and pressure are derived by using the upper bound theorem. Parametric studies reveal that insufficient drainage and earthquakes are crucial factors that cause unfavorable earth pressure. The numerical results confirm the validity of the total head distribution. Comparisons indicate that the proposed method is consistent with other relevant existing methods in terms of predicting seismic active earth pressure. The method can be applied to the seismic design of waterfront retaining walls.

关键词: seismic active earth pressure     partial seepage flow     pore pressure     anisotropy     upper bound theorem    

Non-invasive continuous blood pressure monitoring: a review of current applications

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第1期   页码 91-101 doi: 10.1007/s11684-013-0239-5

摘要:

Blood pressure monitoring has come a long way from the initial observations made by Reverend Hales in the 18th century. There are none that deny the importance of monitoring perioperative blood pressure; however, the limited ability of the current prevalent technology (oscillometric blood pressure monitoring) to offer continuous blood pressure measurements leaves room for improvement. Invasive monitoring is able to detect beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement, but the risks inherent to the procedure make it unsuitable for routine use except when this risk is outweighed by the benefits. This review focuses on the discoveries which have led up to the current blood pressure monitoring technologies, and especially the creation of those offering non-invasive but continuous blood pressure monitoring capabilities, including their methods of measurement and limitations.

关键词: non-invasive blood pressure monitoring     continuous blood pressure monitoring     invasive blood pressure monitoring     Riva-Rocci technique     oscillometric     Pe?áz technique     arterial tonometry     pulse transit time    

Assessment and validation of liquid breakup models for high-pressure dense diesel sprays

Yi REN,Xianguo LI

《能源前沿(英文)》 2016年 第10卷 第2期   页码 164-175 doi: 10.1007/s11708-016-0407-9

摘要: Liquid breakup in fuel spray and atomization significantly affects the consequent mixture formation, combustion behavior, and emission formation processes in a direct injection diesel engine. In this paper, different models for liquid breakup processes in high-pressure dense diesel sprays and its impact on multi-dimensional diesel engine simulation have been evaluated against experimental observations, along with the influence of the liquid breakup models and the sensitivity of model parameters on diesel sprays and diesel engine simulations. It is found that the modified Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH)–Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) breakup model gives the most reasonable predicted results in both engine simulation and high-pressure diesel spray simulation. For the standard KH-RT model, the model constant for the breakup length has a significant effect on the predictability of the model, and a fixed value of the constant cannot provide a satisfactory result for different operation conditions. The Taylor-analogy-breakup (TAB) based models and the RT model do not provide reasonable predictions for the characteristics of high-pressure sprays and simulated engine performance and emissions.

关键词: breakup model     diesel engine     high-pressure injection     simulations    

Distribution, characteristics and daily fluctuations of microplastics throughout wastewater treatment plants with mixed domestic–industrial influents in Wuxi City, China

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第1期   页码 6-6 doi: 10.1007/s11783-021-1440-4

摘要:

• MPs were analyzed throughout three WWTPs with mixed domestic–industrial influents.

关键词: Microplastic     Wastewater treatment plant     Mixed domestic-industrial influent     Characteristic     Daily fluctuation    

Effect of pressure on gasification reactivity of three Chinese coals with different ranks

Chunyu LI, Jiantao ZHAO, Yitian FANG, Yang WANG

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第4期   页码 385-393 doi: 10.1007/s11705-010-0501-1

摘要: The gasification reactivities of three kinds of different coal ranks (Huolinhe lignite, Shenmu bituminous coal, and Jincheng anthracite) with CO and H O was carried out on a self-made pressurized fixed-bed reactor at increased pressures (up to 1.0 MPa). The physicochemical characteristics of the chars at various levels of carbon conversion were studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and BET surface area. Results show that the char gasification reactivity increases with increasing partial pressure. The gasification reaction is controlled by pore diffusion, the rate decreases with increasing total system pressure, and under chemical kinetic control there is no pressure dependence. In general, gasification rates decrease for coals of progressively higher rank. The experimental results could be well described by the shrinking core model for three chars during steam and CO gasification. The values of reaction order with steam were 0.49, 0.46, 0.43, respectively. Meanwhile, the values of reaction order with CO were 0.31, 0.28, 0.26, respectively. With the coal rank increasing, the pressure order is higher, the activation energies increase slightly with steam, and the activation energy with CO increases noticeably. As the carbon conversion increases, the degree of graphitization is enhanced. The surface area of the gasified char increases rapidly with the progress of gasification and peaks at about 40% of char gasification.

关键词: coal     gasification     pressure     reaction order     shrinking core model    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Numerical simulation and analysis of periodically oscillating pressure characteristics of inviscid flow

Yan GU, Yonglin JU

期刊论文

A novel high-temperature and high-pressure hydraulic pump based on mononeuron control

Linhui ZHAO, Xin FANG

期刊论文

Power fluctuation and power loss of wind turbines due to wind shear and tower shadow

Binrong WEN, Sha WEI, Kexiang WEI, Wenxian YANG, Zhike PENG, Fulei CHU

期刊论文

A novel light fluctuation spectrum method for in-line particle sizing

Shouxuan QIN, Xiaoshu CAI, Li MA

期刊论文

基于同步波动原理的抗冲蚀弹性涂层设计

郭源君,肖华林,徐大清,李文斌

期刊论文

Optimal portfolio design of energy storage devices with financial and physical right market

期刊论文

Deviation correction strategy for the earth pressure balance shield based on shield–soil interactions

期刊论文

Combustion instability detection using the wavelet detail of pressure fluctuations

JI Junjie, LUO Yonghao

期刊论文

Hydraulic fracturing pressure of concentric double-layered cylinder in cohesive soil

期刊论文

“Partial pressures” of humid air in wide pressure and temperature ranges

Zidong WANG, Hanping CHEN, Shilie WENG

期刊论文

Upper bound solution to seismic active earth pressure of submerged backfill subjected to partial drainage

期刊论文

Non-invasive continuous blood pressure monitoring: a review of current applications

null

期刊论文

Assessment and validation of liquid breakup models for high-pressure dense diesel sprays

Yi REN,Xianguo LI

期刊论文

Distribution, characteristics and daily fluctuations of microplastics throughout wastewater treatment plants with mixed domestic–industrial influents in Wuxi City, China

期刊论文

Effect of pressure on gasification reactivity of three Chinese coals with different ranks

Chunyu LI, Jiantao ZHAO, Yitian FANG, Yang WANG

期刊论文