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Comparative proteomic analysis of cold responsive proteins in two wheat cultivars with different toleranceto spring radiation frost

Shujuan ZHANG,Guoqi SONG,Yulian LI,Jie GAO,Jiao WANG,Guiju CHEN,Haosheng LI,Genying LI,Zhendong ZHAO

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第1卷 第1期   页码 37-45 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2014008

摘要: Spring radiation frost (SRF) is a severe environmental stress which impairs wheat yield and productivity worldwide. To better understand the mechanism of wheat ( ) responding to SRF, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed to analyze the changes of the key proteins in two wheat cultivars Jimai22 and Luyuan301 with high and low tolerance to SRF respectively. A total of 43 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) which mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, resistance proteins and antioxidant enzymes, photosynthesis and cellular respiration proteins, cell-wall related proteins, protein translation/processing/degradation and signal transduction were isolated and identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. The results revealed that of the 21 DEPs in Jimai22 responding to the SRF, 13 DEPs were upregulated and 8 DEPs were downregulated, and that of the 22 DEPs in Luyuan301, 9 DEPs were upregulated and 13 DEPs were downregulated. These DEPs might be responsible for the stronger cold resistance of Jimai22 compared to Luyuan301. The expression pattern and function analysis of these DEPs were very significant to understanding the mechanism of the SRF responses in wheat.

关键词: common wheat     spring radiation frost     proteomic analysis     2-DE     MALDI-TOF-TOF MS    

Spectral reflectance indices as proxies for yield potential and heat stress tolerance in spring wheat

Caiyun LIU, Francisco PINTO, C. Mariano COSSANI, Sivakumar SUKUMARAN, Matthew P. REYNOLDS

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第3期   页码 296-308 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019269

摘要:

The application of spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) as proxies to screen for yield potential (YP) and heat stress (HS) is emerging in crop breeding programs. Thus, a comparison of SRIs and their associations with grain yield (GY) under YP and HS conditions is important. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of 27 SRIs for indirect selection for agronomic traits by evaluating an elite spring wheat association mapping initiative (WAMI) population comprising 287 elite lines under YP and HS conditions. Genetic and phenotypic analysis identified 11 and 9 SRIs in different developmental stages as efficient indirect selection indices for yield in YP and HS conditions, respectively. We identified enhanced vegetation index (EVI) as the common SRI associated with GY under YP at booting, heading and late heading stages, whereas photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were the common SRIs under booting and heading stages in HS. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 18704 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Illumina iSelect 90K identified 280 and 43 marker-trait associations for efficient SRIs at different developmental stages under YP and HS, respectively. Common genomic regions for multiple SRIs were identified in 14 regions in 9 chromosomes: 1B (60–62 cM), 3A (15, 85–90, 101–105 cM), 3B (132–134 cM), 4A (47–51 cM), 4B (71–75 cM), 5A (43–49, 56–60, 89–93 cM), 5B (124–125 cM), 6A (80–85 cM), and 6B (57–59, 71 cM). Among them, SNPs in chromosome 5A (89–93 cM) and 6A (80–85 cM) were co-located for yield and yield related traits. Overall, this study highlights the utility of SRIs as proxies for GY under YP and HS. High heritability estimates and identification of marker-trait associations indicate that SRIs are useful tools for understanding the genetic basis of agronomic and physiological traits.

关键词: genome-wide association study (GWAS)     heat tolerance     spectral reflectance     spring wheat    

Back to the spring of Wuhan: facts and hope of COVID-19 outbreak

Guangbiao Zhou, Saijuan Chen, Zhu Chen

《医学前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第2期   页码 113-116 doi: 10.1007/s11684-020-0758-9

Analysis and characterization of wind-solar-constant torque spring hybridized model

Shantanu ACHARYA,Subhadeep BHATTACHARJEE

《能源前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第3期   页码 279-289 doi: 10.1007/s11708-014-0312-z

摘要: Solar and wind are the most promising renewable energy resources. But their unpredictable and varying nature prevents them from being used as the sole resource for power generation. This paper presents a model of wind and solar thermal hybrid power plant with a spring storage system which is expected to play an efficient role in combating with the drawbacks related to renewable power generation. In the proposed scheme, wind energy is harnessed by a hybrid vertical axis wind turbine, solar energy is utilized by a Stirling engine, and the surplus energy is stored in a winding spring. The paper discusses the working methodologies and analyses the performance of such 2.6 kW hybrid power plant model. It has been observed that the plant is capable of consistently generating 50% of its rated capacity irrespective of limitations in solar and wind resources.

关键词: hybrid vertical axis wind turbine     Stirling engine     solar-thermal energy     wind energy     constant torque spring    

Static balancing of planar articulated robots

Giuseppe QUAGLIA,Zhe YIN

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第10卷 第4期   页码 326-343 doi: 10.1007/s11465-015-0355-9

摘要:

Static balancing for a manipulator’s weight is necessary in terms of energy saving and performance improvement. This paper proposes a method to design balancing devices for articulated robots in industry, based on robotic dynamics. Full design details for the balancing system using springs are presented from two aspects: One is the optimization for the position of the balancing system; the other is the design of the spring parameters. As examples, two feasible balancing devices are proposed, based on different robotic structures: The first solution consists of linkages and springs; the other consists of pulleys, cross mechanisms and (hydro-) pneumatic springs. Then the two solutions are compared. Pneumatic, hydro-pneumatic and mechanical springs are discussed and their parameters are decided according to the requirements of torque compensation. Numerical results show that with the proper design using the methodology presented in this paper, an articulated robot can be statically balanced perfectly in all configurations. This paper therefore provides a design method of the balancing system for other similar structures.

关键词: robotics     static balancing     pneumatic spring     mechanical spring     torque compensation    

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON CROP PRODUCTION, PESTS AND PATHOGENS OF WHEAT AND RICE

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第1期 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021432

摘要:

Ongoing climate change is expected to have impacts on crops, insect pests, and plant pathogens and poses considerable threats to sustainable food security. Existing reviews have summarized impacts of a changing climate on agriculture, but the majority of these are presented from an ecological point of view, and scant information is available on specific species in agricultural applications. This paper provides an overview of impacts of climate change on two staple crops, wheat and rice. First, the direct effects of climate change on crop growth, yield formation, and geographic distribution of wheat and rice are reviewed. Then, the effects of climate change on pests and pathogens related with wheat and rice, and their interactions with the crops are summarized. Finally, potential management strategies to mitigate the direct impacts of climate change on crops, and the indirect impacts on crops through pests and pathogens are outlined. The present overview aims to aid agriculture practitioners and researchers who are interested in wheat and rice to better understand climate change related impacts on the target species.

A perspective of “Nuclear Hot Spring” for long-term sustainable economy of the world

Yingzhong LU

《能源前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第4期   页码 349-357 doi: 10.1007/s11708-011-0168-4

摘要: The rapid growth of human economy in the late 20th century gave rise to great concern over sustainability of the world. A pessimistic “Full World Model” forecasts that human economy could not develop further. The nuclear fission (and fusion later), however, could release huge amount of energy to create sufficient useful material resources and turn the said pessimistic modelinto a new optimistic “Sustainable World Model”.The dilemma of nuclear energy (Military Giant vs. Civil Dwarf) jeopardizes its performance as a “Technologic Fixer”. According to Mother Nature’s teachings, the elimination of the root-causes of the design-based risk factors could solve this problem. Recent technology break-through from inherent safety to natural safety has been made in China. The proposed full-power natural circulation “Nuclear Hot Spring (NHS)” reactor could operate solely on natural forces without complex man-made coolant circulation equipment and human-operated control systems. The cheap, unlimited supply of energy from nuclear energy could change the geopolitics forever, and finally eliminate the root-causes of most international and regional conflicts.

关键词: natural safety reactor     full power natural circulation     sustainable world economy    

A brief history of wheat utilization in China

Minxia LU, Liang CHEN, Jinxiu WANG, Ruiliang LIU, Yang YANG, Meng WEI, Guanghui DONG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第3期   页码 288-295 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019266

摘要:

Wheat is one of the most important crops in both China and the world, and its domestication can be traced back to ~10000 years ago. However, the history of its origin and utilization in China remains highly ambiguous. Drawing upon the most recent results of taxonomic, genetic, archeological and textual studies focused on the wheat in prehistory, this paper argues that wheat was not domesticated but introduced into China in the late fifth millennium BP. In the subsequent centuries, this exotic crop was quickly utilized as a staple food in northwest China. In contrast, it was not adopted as a staple in Central Plains until the Han Dynasty (202 BCE–220 CE), which was mainly as a consequence of the living environment, population and innovations in food processing technology.

关键词: multidisciplinary evidence     prehistoric food globalization     wheat consumption     wheat domestication    

Transcriptome analysis of wheat grain using RNA-Seq

Liu WEI,Zhihui WU,Yufeng ZHANG,Dandan GUO,Yuzhou XU,Weixia CHEN,Haiying ZHOU,Mingshan YOU,Baoyun LI

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第1卷 第3期   页码 214-222 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2014024

摘要: With the increase in consumer demand, wheat grain quality improvement has become a focus in China and worldwide. Transcriptome analysis is a powerful approach to research grain traits and elucidate their genetic regulation. In this study, two cDNA libraries from the developing grain and leaf-stem components of bread wheat cultivar, Nongda211, were sequenced using Roche/454 technology. There were 1061274 and 1516564 clean reads generated from grain and leaf-stem, respectively. A total of 61393 high-quality unigenes were obtained with an average length of 1456 bp after assembly. The analysis of the 61393 unigenes involved in the biological processes of the grain showed that there were 7355 differentially expressed genes upregulated in the grain library. Gene ontology enrichment and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis showed that many transcription products and transcription factors associated with carbohydrate and protein metabolism were abundantly expressed in the grain. These results contribute to excavate genes associated with wheat quality and further study how they interact.

关键词: transcriptome analysis     wheat grain     differentially expressed genes     enrichment analysis    

RESPONSE OF WHEAT COMPOSITE CROSS POPULATIONS TO DISEASE AND CLIMATE VARIATION OVER 13 GENERATIONS

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第3期   页码 400-415 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021394

摘要:

Since the F5 (2005), three winter wheat composite cross populations (CCPs) based on germplasm specifically suitable for low-input conditions were subjected to natural selection under organic and conventional management. In the F6, each CCP was divided into two parallel populations (12 CCPs in total) and maintained continuously until 2018. Commonly used modern cultivars with different disease susceptibilities were grown alongside to assess the agronomic performance of the CCPs. The organically managed CCPs were comparable in yield and foliar disease resistance to two continuously used reference cultivars, Achat and Capo. In contrast, under conventional management the cv. Capo outyielded the CCPs (Achat was not tested), highlighting the importance of parental cultivar choice for specific management systems. The CCPs were found to be moderately resistant to brown rust and even to the newly emerged stripe rust races prevalent in Europe since 2011. Differences between the CCPs were mainly due to parental genetic background and were significant in the first five generations, but were no longer so in the last five generations. In addition, these differences tended to vary depending on the experimental year and the environmental stresses present. In conclusion, the CCPs despite being derived from older cultivars are able to compete with more recently released reference cultivars under organic farming practices and represent a dynamic germplasm resource.

 

关键词: evolutionary breeding     heterogeneous crop population     management system    

我国小麦生产应对入世之策略

白选杰

《中国工程科学》 2003年 第5卷 第3期   页码 21-24

摘要:

我国小麦生产应对入世的主要策略是:依靠先进栽培技术,提高小麦生产效益;调整优化种植结构,发展优质专用小麦;积极发展商品生产,认真搞好深层加工;搞好产销衔接工作,扩大小麦市场销售;科研推广通力合作,提高生产科技含量;充分利用“绿箱"政策,加大财政支持力度。

关键词: 小麦     WTO     策略    

Genetic improvement of wheat grain quality at CIMMYT

Carlos GUZMÁN, Karim AMMAR, Velu GOVINDAN, Ravi SINGH

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第3期   页码 265-272 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019260

摘要:

The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) is the global leader in publicly-funded maize and wheat research and in farming systems based on these crops. CIMMYT leads the Global Wheat Program (GWP), which includes some of the largest wheat breeding programs in the world. The GWP has been successful in developing wheat germplasm that is used extensively worldwide. Wheat quality improvement is a central component of all the breeding efforts at CIMMYT and the Wheat Chemistry and Quality Laboratory represents an integral part of the breeding programs. Wheat quality is addressed at CIMMYT over the full range of this very wide and variable concept with milling, processing, end-use and nutritional quality targeted. Wheat progenitors and advanced lines developed by the breeders are assessed for diverse quality attributes, with the aim of identifying those that fulfill the requirements in terms of milling, processing, end-use and nutritional quality in different target regions. Significant research is conducted to make more efficient the integration of wheat quality traits in the breeding programs. The main topics being addressed are (1) methodologies to analyze grain quality traits, (2) genetic control and environmental effects on quality traits, (3) characterization of genetic resources for quality improvement, and (4) diversifying grain properties for novel uses.

关键词: biofortification     breeding     grain quality     wheat    

Wheat gluten protein and its impacts on wheat processing quality

Wujun MA, Zitong YU, Maoyun SHE, Yun ZHAO, Shahidul ISLAM

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第3期   页码 279-287 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019267

摘要:

Before the advent of the wheat genomic era, a wide range of studies were conducted to understand the chemistry and functions of the wheat storage proteins, which are the major determinants of wheat flour the suitability of wheat flour for various end products, such as bread, noodles and cakes. Wheat grain protein is divided into gluten and non-gluten fractions and the wheat processing quality mainly depends on the gluten fractions. Gluten provides the unique extensibility and elasticity of dough that are essential for various wheat end products. Disulfide bonds are formed between cysteine residues, which is the chemical bases for the physical properties of dough. Based on the SDS-extractability, grain protein is divided into SDS-unextractable polymeric protein (UPP) and SDS-extractable polymeric protein. The percentage of UPP is positively related to the formation of disulfide bonds in the dough matrix. In the wheat genomic era, new glutenins with long repetitive central domains that contain a high number of consensus hexapeptide and nonapeptide motifs as well as high content of cysteine and glutamine residues should be targeted.

关键词: wheat gluten     consensus motifs     disulfide bonds     SDS-unextractable polymeric protein     glutenins     gliadins     processing quality     storage protein    

Comments on this special issue on “Wheat Genetics and Breeding”

Zhonghu HE, Xu LLU

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第3期   页码 309-309 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019264

Response of peroxidase and catalase to acid rain stress during seed germination of rice, wheat, and rape

WANG Lihong, HUANG Xiaohua, ZHOU Qing

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2008年 第2卷 第3期   页码 364-369 doi: 10.1007/s11783-008-0053-5

摘要: Seed germination of plants with various acid-resistance display different responses to acid rain. To understand the reason why such differences occur, the effects of simulated acid rain (pH 2.5–5.0) on the activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) during seed germination of rice (), wheat (), and rape ( var. ) were investigated. Results indicated that the maximum change in activities of CAT and POD by acid rain treatment with different acidity and time in relation to the referent treatment without acid rain, was in the order: rice (28.8%, 31.7%) < wheat (34.7%, 48.3%) < rape (79.3%, 50.0%). The pH level for which the treatment with acid rain did not cause significant difference ( < 0.05) was in the order: rice (3.5) > wheat (4.0) > rape (5.0). Moreover, the change in activity of POD was higher than that of CAT, which showed that POD was more sensitive to acid rain stress than CAT. The difference in the ability of POD and CAT in removing free radicals was one reason why the germination indexes of these three species behaved differently.

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Comparative proteomic analysis of cold responsive proteins in two wheat cultivars with different toleranceto spring radiation frost

Shujuan ZHANG,Guoqi SONG,Yulian LI,Jie GAO,Jiao WANG,Guiju CHEN,Haosheng LI,Genying LI,Zhendong ZHAO

期刊论文

Spectral reflectance indices as proxies for yield potential and heat stress tolerance in spring wheat

Caiyun LIU, Francisco PINTO, C. Mariano COSSANI, Sivakumar SUKUMARAN, Matthew P. REYNOLDS

期刊论文

Back to the spring of Wuhan: facts and hope of COVID-19 outbreak

Guangbiao Zhou, Saijuan Chen, Zhu Chen

期刊论文

Analysis and characterization of wind-solar-constant torque spring hybridized model

Shantanu ACHARYA,Subhadeep BHATTACHARJEE

期刊论文

Static balancing of planar articulated robots

Giuseppe QUAGLIA,Zhe YIN

期刊论文

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON CROP PRODUCTION, PESTS AND PATHOGENS OF WHEAT AND RICE

期刊论文

A perspective of “Nuclear Hot Spring” for long-term sustainable economy of the world

Yingzhong LU

期刊论文

A brief history of wheat utilization in China

Minxia LU, Liang CHEN, Jinxiu WANG, Ruiliang LIU, Yang YANG, Meng WEI, Guanghui DONG

期刊论文

Transcriptome analysis of wheat grain using RNA-Seq

Liu WEI,Zhihui WU,Yufeng ZHANG,Dandan GUO,Yuzhou XU,Weixia CHEN,Haiying ZHOU,Mingshan YOU,Baoyun LI

期刊论文

RESPONSE OF WHEAT COMPOSITE CROSS POPULATIONS TO DISEASE AND CLIMATE VARIATION OVER 13 GENERATIONS

期刊论文

我国小麦生产应对入世之策略

白选杰

期刊论文

Genetic improvement of wheat grain quality at CIMMYT

Carlos GUZMÁN, Karim AMMAR, Velu GOVINDAN, Ravi SINGH

期刊论文

Wheat gluten protein and its impacts on wheat processing quality

Wujun MA, Zitong YU, Maoyun SHE, Yun ZHAO, Shahidul ISLAM

期刊论文

Comments on this special issue on “Wheat Genetics and Breeding”

Zhonghu HE, Xu LLU

期刊论文

Response of peroxidase and catalase to acid rain stress during seed germination of rice, wheat, and rape

WANG Lihong, HUANG Xiaohua, ZHOU Qing

期刊论文