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Phosphorus status, use and recycling in a Chinese peri-urban region with intensive animal husbandry and cropping systems

Marco ROELCKE, Lisa HEIMANN, Yong HOU, Jianbin GUO, Qiaoyun XUE, Wei JIA, Anne OSTERMANN, Roxana Mendoza HUAITALLA, Moritz ENGBERS, Clemens OLBRICH, Roland W. SCHOLZ, Joachim CLEMENS, Frank SCHUCHARDT, Rolf NIEDER, Xuejun LIU, Fusuo ZHANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第4期   页码 388-402 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019286

摘要:

The Sino-German research collaboration project, “Recycling of organic residues from agricultural and municipal origin in China” (2008–2012), comprising different interdisciplinary research groups, and also German small and medium-sized enterprises, aimed at developing integrated strategies and solutions for the recycling of organic residues in China. In an intensive crop-livestock agricultural region in the Shunyi District of Beijing, five typical cropping systems were investigated. The research was conducted in the form of analyses of phosphorus (P) in soil, plants, animal feed, animal products, manures, mineral and organic fertilizers and the derivation of the corresponding nutrient balances and P flows. The mean annual P balance surplus was 492 kg·ha ·yr P for the vegetable production system, significantly higher ( <0.05) than that for orchards (130 kg·ha ·yr P) and cereal crops (83 kg·ha ·yr P). Plant-available P (Olsen-P) concentrations of topsoils (0–20 cm) had good correlations with the amounts of P applied (from mineral and organic sources). Compared to results from the Second Chinese National Soil Survey of 1981, mean concentrations of available P in soils of 19 plots investigated in Shunyi District increased 10-fold (from 7.3 to 60 mg·kg ) from 1981 to 2009. On average, the critical limit for Olsen-P concentrations (>30 mg·kg ) that can lead to increased risk of P loss was exceeded in all five cropping systems. With feed additives, the “natural background value” (Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils) of copper and zinc in topsoils was exceeded at several sites. Screening for several substances in the veterinary antibiotic classes of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones revealed widespread topsoil contamination. Calculated livestock densities were 10.6 livestock units per ha arable land in 2007. Animal husbandry is increasingly conducted in large operations, making traditional ways of reuse difficult to apply. Comparing three management systems for treatment of organic residues from a pig farm via aerobic (composting) or anaerobic (biogas) treatment in a life cycle assessment, the resulting cropland demand for a sustainable land application of biogas effluent varied between 139 and 288 ha·yr , well above the cropland area owned by the farm (10 ha). The mismatch problems in the above context between business-as-usual and improving performance are framed and discussed as (1) the mismatch between centralized animal husbandry and smallholder farming, (2) the mismatch between livestock density and cropland, (3) nutrient (including P) recycling and increasing organic matter content versus energy production, (4) subsidies for compost production and biogas, as well as (5) advances in the regulatory framework in China.

关键词: cropping systems     life cycle assessment     North China Plain     balances and nutrient flows     transdisciplinary approach    

TRANSLATING THE MULTI-ACTOR APPROACH TO RESEARCH INTO PRACTICE USING A WORKSHOP APPROACH FOCUSING ON

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第3期   页码 460-473 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021416

摘要:

The EIP-Agri multiactor approach was exemplified during a 3-day workshop with 63 project participants from the EU H2020 funded project “Redesigning European cropping systems based on species MIXtures”. The objective was to share firsthand experience of participatory research among researchers who were mostly not familiar with this approach. Workshop participants were divided into smaller multidisciplinary groups and given the opportunity to interact with representatives from eight actor positions in the value chain of the agrifood cooperative Terrena located in Western France. The four stages of the workshop were: (1) key actor interviews, (2) sharing proposed solutions for overcoming barriers, and (3) developing possible interdisciplinary concepts. Expressions of frustration were recorded serving both as a motivation for group members to become more aware of the scientific concerns and practices of their colleagues, as well as a recognition that some researchers have better skills integrating qualitative approaches than others. Nevertheless, the workshop format was an effective way to gain a common understanding of the pertinent issues that need to be addressed to meet overall multiactor-approach objectives. Working with the actor networks was identified and emphasized as a means to overcome existing barriers between academia and practice in order to coproduce a shared vision of the benefits of species mixture benefits.

 

关键词: agroecology     codesign     intercropping     knowledge sharing     participatory methods    

Governance approach to China’s environmental challenges: Towards a theoretical synthesis

QI Ye, XUE Lan, ZHANG Lingyun

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第4期   页码 385-400 doi: 10.1007/s11783-007-0066-5

摘要: This paper reviewed recent research in environmental governance as a response to environmental challenges at various spatial, temporal and administrative scales. It documented the shift of approach from regulation to governance, and attempted to provide a comprehensive understanding why and how the transformation occurred. It also described major factors and forces of environmental governance, and discussed research advance in environmental governance theory. Finally, this paper summarized recent research findings on environmental governance in China, and listed policy recommendation for enhancing the governance.

关键词: environmental governance     approach     temporal     regulation     various    

Comparison of surgical indications for hysterectomy by age and approach in 4653 Chinese women

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第4期   页码 464-470 doi: 10.1007/s11684-014-0338-y

摘要:

Approximately one million hysterectomies are performed each year in China. However, national data regarding the indications and the surgical approaches for hysterectomy are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the surgical indications for hysterectomy in different age groups and the relative merits of different surgical approaches for hysterectomy in Chinese women. Clinical data from 4653 cases of hysterectomy performed in Tongji Hospital from 2004 to 2009 were analysed. Hysterectomy was most commonly performed among women aged 40--49 years (2299; 49.4%). Overall, colporrhagia and abdominal pain were the two most common indications for hysterectomy. The most common indications by age groups were as follows: malignant ovarian tumour,<20 years; malignant uterine tumour, 20--29 and 30--39 years; uterine myoma, 40--49 and 50--59 years; and uterine prolapse, 60--69 and>70 years. The proportion of malignant aetiology also varied by age, being the highest in women aged<20 years (75.0%) and the lowest in those aged 40--49 years (19.9%). Approximately 35% women who had hysterectomies also had concomitant bilateral oophorectomy. The lowest rate of oophorectomy occurred in women aged 30--39 years (15.8%), whereas the highest rate was in those aged 50--59 years (75.9%). The abdominal surgical approach was used in 84% of all hysterectomies. Surgeries using the vaginal approach required a significantly shorter operating time (118 min average) than all other approaches (P<0.05). Both the amount of bleeding and the blood transfusion volume required were smaller in vaginal approaches, with no significant differences between the others. The surgical approaches used were also related to the scope of surgery. Both the surgical indications and the rates of bilateral oophorectomy varied by age. In terms of both operating time and the amount of bleeding and blood transfusion volume required, the vaginal approach was superior to all other surgical approaches.

关键词: hysterectomy     surgical indications     surgical approach     bilateral oophorectomy    

Hierarchical approach for fatigue cracking performance evaluation in asphalt pavements

Ibrahim ONIFADE, Yared DINEGDAE, Björn BIRGISSON

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第3期   页码 257-269 doi: 10.1007/s11709-017-0410-1

摘要: In this paper, a hierarchical approach is proposed for the evaluation of fatigue cracking in asphalt concrete pavements considering three different levels of complexities in the representation of the material behaviour, design parameters characterization and the determination of the pavement response as well as damage computation. Based on the developed hierarchical approach, three damage computation levels are identified and proposed. The levels of fatigue damage analysis provides pavement engineers a variety of tools that can be used for pavement analysis depending on the availability of data, required level of prediction accuracy and computational power at their disposal. The hierarchical approach also provides a systematic approach for the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of pavement deterioration, the elimination of the empiricism associated with pavement design today and the transition towards the use of sound principles of mechanics in pavement analysis and design.

关键词: fatigue cracking     energy based     crack initiation     mechanistic approach     pavement analysis    

Critical flow-storm approach to total maximum daily load (TMDL) development: an analytical conceptual

Zhang Harry, Yu Shaw

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2008年 第2卷 第3期   页码 267-273 doi: 10.1007/s11783-008-0058-0

摘要: One of the key challenges in the total maximum daily load (TMDL) development process is how to define the critical condition for a receiving waterbody. The main concern in using a continuous simulation approach is the absence of any guarantee that the most critical condition will be captured during the selected representative hydrologic period, given the scarcity of long-term continuous data. The objectives of this paper are to clearly address the critical condition in the TMDL development process and to compare continuous and event-based approaches in defining critical condition during TMDL development for a waterbody impacted by both point and nonpoint source pollution. A practical, event-based critical flow-storm (CFS) approach was developed to explicitly addresses the critical condition as a combination of a low stream flow and a storm event of a selected magnitude, both having certain frequencies of occurrence. This paper illustrated the CFS concept and provided its theoretical basis using a derived analytical conceptual model. The CFS approach clearly defined a critical condition, obtained reasonable results and could be considered as an alternative method in TMDL development.

关键词: representative hydrologic     occurrence     simulation approach     scarcity     alternative    

Promising approach for preparing metallic single-atom catalysts: electrochemical deposition

《能源前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第4期   页码 537-541 doi: 10.1007/s11708-022-0837-5

A visual graphic approach for mobility analysis of parallel mechanisms

Xu PEI, Jingjun YU

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第6卷 第1期   页码 92-95 doi: 10.1007/s11465-011-0213-3

New approach for distinguishing the similarity of links

XIANG Jianyun, GE Maozhong, WANG Zhiping

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2008年 第3卷 第1期   页码 55-58 doi: 10.1007/s11465-008-0004-7

摘要: Based on the problem of distinguishing the similarity of links in the regenerative innovation design of a kinematic chain, a new approach using the standard power matrix of the adjacent matrix is presented in this paper. The implementation of the approach is illustrated with an example. This method solves the technically baffling problem in mechanism type synthesis and reduced redundant design scheme, and raises the reliability and the efficiency of the regenerative innovation design of the kinematic chain.

关键词: kinematic     similarity     implementation     mechanism     standard    

Taking advantage of drug resistance, a new approach in the war on cancer

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第4期   页码 490-495 doi: 10.1007/s11684-018-0647-7

摘要:

Identification of the driver mutations in cancer has resulted in the development of a new category of molecularly targeted anti-cancer drugs. However, as was the case with conventional chemotherapies, the effectiveness of these drugs is limited by the emergence of drug-resistant variants. While most cancer therapies are given in combinations that are designed to avoid drug resistance, we discuss here therapeutic approaches that take advantage of the changes in cancer cells that arise upon development of drug resistance. This approach is based on notion that drug resistance comes at a fitness cost to the cancer cell that can be exploited for therapeutic benefit. We discuss the development of sequential drug therapies in which the first therapy is not given with curative intent, but to induce a major new sensitivity that can be targeted with a second drug that selectively targets the acquired vulnerability. This concept of collateral sensitivity has hitherto not been used on a large scale in the clinic and holds great promise for future cancer therapy.

关键词: cancer     drug resistance     genetic screens     senescence     targeted therapy    

Integrated approach to winery waste: waste generation and data consolidation

Margarida OLIVEIRA,Elizabeth DUARTE

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第10卷 第1期   页码 168-176 doi: 10.1007/s11783-014-0693-6

摘要: The winemaking process involves the generation of a significant amount of waste and wastewater. These residues should be addressed for recycling or treatment before being returned to environment. As each winery is unique in waste generation and disposal, plans for environmentally friendly waste management are not universal and should be tested for their effectiveness. In this study, a diagnostic was made during three years, in different wineries, throughout Portugal, in order to quantify and characterize the waste and the wastewater produced. The results showed that solid waste and wastewater are mainly produced during the harvest period, corresponding to 74% and 87%, respectively. One ton of processed grape approximately produce 0.13 t marc, 0.06 t lees, 0.03 t of stalks and 1.65 m of wastewater. No significant differences ( ≤0.05) were observed for grape marc, lees and wastewater ratios, between years or wineries. With respect to the stalk ratio, there was no effect of year but the winery significantly affected this ratio ( ≤0.05). During the study period the treated wastewater, since diluted, revealed suitable characteristics for irrigation representing an additional source of water. In this regard, the data acquisition and consolidation ensure the transfer of information and experience which constitute an essential step in a support decision tool design.

关键词: waste management     wastewater reuse     winery wastewater    

Data Centric Design: A New Approach to Design of Microstructural Material Systems Article

Wei Chen, Akshay Iyer, Ramin Bostanabad

《工程(英文)》 2022年 第10卷 第3期   页码 89-98

摘要:

Building processing, structure, and property (PSP) relations for computational materials design is at the heart of the Materials Genome Initiative in the era of high-throughput computational materials science. Recent technological advancements in data acquisition and storage, microstructure characterization and reconstruction (MCR), machine learning (ML), materials modeling and simulation, data processing, manufacturing, and experimentation have significantly advanced researchers’ abilities in building PSP relations and inverse material design. In this article, we examine these advancements from the perspective of design research. In particular, we introduce a data-centric approach whose fundamental aspects fall into three categories: design representation, design evaluation, and design synthesis. Developments in each of these aspects are guided by and benefit from domain knowledge. Hence, for each aspect, we present a wide range of computational methods whose integration realizes data-centric materials discovery and design.

A new meshless approach for bending analysis of thin plates with arbitrary shapes and boundary conditions

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第1期   页码 75-85 doi: 10.1007/s11709-021-0798-5

摘要: An efficient and meshfree approach is proposed for the bending analysis of thin plates. The approach is based on the choice of a set of interior points, for each of which a basis function can be defined. Plate deflection is then approximated as the linear combination of those basis functions. Unlike traditional meshless methods, present basis functions are defined in the whole domain and satisfy the governing differential equation for plate. Therefore, no domain integration is needed, while the unknown coefficients of deflection expression could be determined through boundary conditions by using a collocation point method. Both efficiency and accuracy of the approach are shown through numerical results of plates with arbitrary shapes and boundary conditions under various loads.

关键词: plate     bending     meshless method     collocation    

An energy consumption prediction approach of die casting machines driven by product parameters

《机械工程前沿(英文)》   页码 868-886 doi: 10.1007/s11465-021-0656-0

摘要: Die casting machines, which are the core equipment of the machinery manufacturing industry, consume great amounts of energy. The energy consumption prediction of die casting machines can support energy consumption quota, process parameter energy-saving optimization, energy-saving design, and energy efficiency evaluation; thus, it is of great significance for Industry 4.0 and green manufacturing. Nevertheless, due to the uncertainty and complexity of the energy consumption in die casting machines, there is still a lack of an approach for energy consumption prediction that can provide support for process parameter optimization and product design taking energy efficiency into consideration. To fill this gap, this paper proposes an energy consumption prediction approach for die casting machines driven by product parameters. Firstly, the system boundary of energy consumption prediction is defined, and subsequently, based on the energy consumption characteristics analysis, a theoretical energy consumption model is established. Consequently, a systematic energy consumption prediction approach for die casting machines, involving product, die, equipment, and process parameters, is proposed. Finally, the feasibility and reliability of the proposed energy consumption prediction approach are verified with the help of three die casting machines and six types of products. The results show that the prediction accuracy of production time and energy consumption reached 91.64% and 85.55%, respectively. Overall, the proposed approach can be used for the energy consumption prediction of different die casting machines with different products.

关键词: die casting machine     energy consumption prediction     product parameters    

A new and best approach for early detection of rotor and stator faults in induction motors coupled to

Abderrahim ALLAL,Boukhemis CHETATE

《能源前沿(英文)》 2016年 第10卷 第2期   页码 176-191 doi: 10.1007/s11708-015-0386-2

摘要: Today, induction machines are playing, thanks to their robustness, an important role in world industries. Although they are quite reliable, they have become the target of various types of defects. Thus, for a long time, many research laboratories have been focusing their works on the theme of diagnosis in order to find the most efficient technique to predict a fault in an early stage and to avoid an unplanned stopping in the chain of production and costs ensuing. In this paper, an approach called Park’s vector product approach (PVPA) was proposed which was endowed with a dominant sensitivity in the case in which there would be rotor or stator faults. To show its high sensitivity, it was compared with the classical methods such as motor current signature analysis (MCSA) and techniques studied in recent publications such as motor square current signature analysis (MSCSA), Park’s vector square modulus (PVSM) and Park-Hilbert (P-H) (PVSM ). The proposed technique was based on three main steps. First, the three-phase currents of the induction motor led to a Park’s vector. Secondly, the proposed PVPA was calculated to show the distinguishing spectral signatures of each default and specific frequencies. Finally, simulation and experimental results were presented to confirm the theoretical assumptions.

关键词: induction motor     incipient broken bar     extended Park’s vector approach     spectral analysis     inter-turn short-circuit     Hilbert transform    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Phosphorus status, use and recycling in a Chinese peri-urban region with intensive animal husbandry and cropping systems

Marco ROELCKE, Lisa HEIMANN, Yong HOU, Jianbin GUO, Qiaoyun XUE, Wei JIA, Anne OSTERMANN, Roxana Mendoza HUAITALLA, Moritz ENGBERS, Clemens OLBRICH, Roland W. SCHOLZ, Joachim CLEMENS, Frank SCHUCHARDT, Rolf NIEDER, Xuejun LIU, Fusuo ZHANG

期刊论文

TRANSLATING THE MULTI-ACTOR APPROACH TO RESEARCH INTO PRACTICE USING A WORKSHOP APPROACH FOCUSING ON

期刊论文

Governance approach to China’s environmental challenges: Towards a theoretical synthesis

QI Ye, XUE Lan, ZHANG Lingyun

期刊论文

Comparison of surgical indications for hysterectomy by age and approach in 4653 Chinese women

null

期刊论文

Hierarchical approach for fatigue cracking performance evaluation in asphalt pavements

Ibrahim ONIFADE, Yared DINEGDAE, Björn BIRGISSON

期刊论文

Critical flow-storm approach to total maximum daily load (TMDL) development: an analytical conceptual

Zhang Harry, Yu Shaw

期刊论文

Promising approach for preparing metallic single-atom catalysts: electrochemical deposition

期刊论文

A visual graphic approach for mobility analysis of parallel mechanisms

Xu PEI, Jingjun YU

期刊论文

New approach for distinguishing the similarity of links

XIANG Jianyun, GE Maozhong, WANG Zhiping

期刊论文

Taking advantage of drug resistance, a new approach in the war on cancer

null

期刊论文

Integrated approach to winery waste: waste generation and data consolidation

Margarida OLIVEIRA,Elizabeth DUARTE

期刊论文

Data Centric Design: A New Approach to Design of Microstructural Material Systems

Wei Chen, Akshay Iyer, Ramin Bostanabad

期刊论文

A new meshless approach for bending analysis of thin plates with arbitrary shapes and boundary conditions

期刊论文

An energy consumption prediction approach of die casting machines driven by product parameters

期刊论文

A new and best approach for early detection of rotor and stator faults in induction motors coupled to

Abderrahim ALLAL,Boukhemis CHETATE

期刊论文