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Water, energy and food interactions–Challenges and opportunities

Gustaf OLSSON

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第5期   页码 787-793 doi: 10.1007/s11783-013-0526-z

摘要: Water and energy are inextricably linked, and as a consequence both have to be addressed together. This is called the water-energy nexus. When access to either is limited, it becomes obvious that it is necessary to consider their interdependence. Population growth, climate change, urbanization, increasing living standards and food consumption will require an integrated approach where food, water and energy security are considered together. In this paper we examine water, energy and food security and their couplings. The nexus also creates conflicts between water use, energy extraction and generation as well as food production. Some of these conflicts are illustrated. It is argued that there is an urgent need for integrated planning and operation. Not only will better technology be needed, but also better integration of policies, organizations and political decisions.

关键词: water security     energy security     food security     water-energy nexus     water conflicts    

An Empirical Study on the Generation Mechanism of NIMBY Conflicts of Construction Projects

Guang-she Jia,Song-yu Yan,Wen-jun Wang,Ralf Müller,Chen Lin

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2016年 第3卷 第1期   页码 39-49 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2016015

摘要: In the highly overlapped contexts of urbanization and social transformation, and with the advent of the “Risk Society,” the social issues, called “Not in My Back Yard (NIMBY)” conflicts, caused by the construction or operation of the NIMBY projects have become a serious problem in China. Hence, it is in urgent need to find out the influencing factors and discover the generation mechanism of the NIMBY conflicts. From the perspective of social conflict theory, the authors built a process model of the NIMBY conflicts on the basis of identifying stakeholders and analyzing their interest interaction. Thereafter, the authors conducted a questionnaire survey, followed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealing the underlying influencing factors of the NIMBY conflicts. Finally, they performed the confirmatory analysis method of Structural Equation Modeling to test the preliminary research hypothesis of the model and its interaction path in AMOS 18.0, with the results showing that unequal exchange and consensus mobilization will contribute to the formation of common consciousness of the opposition party, the opposition party’s common consciousness and action mobilization affects the generation of social conflicts. The process model reveals the generation mechanism of the NIMBY conflicts, and it facilitates further investigations in the governance of the NIMBY conflicts.

关键词: NIMBY conflicts     social conflict     construction projects     mechanism     empirical study    

Modeling China’s energy dilemma: conflicts among energy saving, energy security, and CO 2 mitigation

Feng FU, Zheng LI, Linwei MA,

《能源前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第3期   页码 295-300 doi: 10.1007/s11708-010-0104-z

摘要: This study analyzes China’s future energy scenarios stretching until 2050 under different policy portfolios of energy security (e.g., oil import dependency) and CO emissions control. Four scenarios, namely, ① business as usual, ② strong oil import dependency (OID) control, ③ strong CO emissions control, and ④ twofold emphasis on OID and CO emissions control, are designed. The results reveal the existence of conflicts among China’s multiple objectives, particularly energy saving, energy security, and CO mitigation. Based on the analysis, an improvement in China’s efficiency in fossil energy conversion and the promotion of the utilization of non-fossil energy such as nuclear, wind, and hydro energy are recommended. The over-development of coal-derived fuels should also be avoided because of incremental coal consumption and CO emissions. Furthermore, research on and development of carbon capture and storage technologies should be promoted, while the energy efficiency loss caused by integrating these technologies into energy systems should be reduced in view of the high possibility of stricter standards for CO emissions in the future.

关键词: Energy dilemma     energy saving     energy security     CO2 mitigation    

通过解决先验数据冲突实现自适应图神经网络 Research Article

吴旭刚,邬会军,王睿伯,周旭,卢凯

《信息与电子工程前沿(英文)》 2024年 第25卷 第3期   页码 369-383 doi: 10.1631/FITEE.2300194

摘要: 图神经网络(GNN)在各种与图相关的任务中已取得显著性能。最近GNN社区的证据表明,这种良好的性能可归因于同质性先验,即连接的节点倾向于具有相似的特征和标签。然而,在异配性设置中,连接节点的特征可能会有显著变化,导致GNN模型性能明显下降。本文将此问题定义为先验数据冲突,提出一种名为混合先验图神经网络(MPGNN)的模型。首先,为解决异配图上同质性先验不匹配的问题,引入无信息先验,它不对连接节点之间的关系做任何假设,并从数据中学习这种关系。其次,为避免同质图上性能下降,通过可学习的权重实现软开关,以平衡同质性先验和非信息先验的影响。评估了MPGNN在合成图和真实世界图上的性能。结果表明,MPGNN能够有效捕捉连接节点之间的关系,而软开关有助于根据图的特征选择合适的先验。基于这两个设计,MPGNN在异配图上优于最先进的方法,而在同质图上不会牺牲性能。

关键词: 图神经网络;异配性;先验数据冲突    

水·水资源·农业节水

刘更另

《中国工程科学》 2000年 第2卷 第7期   页码 39-42

摘要:

文章从水性质特点谈到中国水资源的问题,认为不能单纯用年平均降雨量的多少来判定中国水资源的状况,水资源开发利用的好坏决定于人类社会的调节和管理。中国水资源总的来说是够用的,最大问题是降水量的时空分布不平衡。

中国农民几千年来创造了许多治水蓄水用水的经验。农业节水非常重要,关键在"分散蓄水,分散使用",以减少径流在汇集和分散过程中的损失和污染,在提高水的利用效率方面有一系列的科研和实际工作要做。

关键词:     水资源     农业节水     分散蓄水    

Managing water for life

Daniel P. LOUCKS, Haifeng JIA

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2012年 第6卷 第2期   页码 255-264 doi: 10.1007/s11783-011-0359-6

摘要: Water is essential for life. In spite of the entire engineering infrastructure devoted to the treatment, regulation and beneficial uses of water, occasionally sufficient quantities and qualities of water become scarce. When this happens, just how do we decide how much less water to allocate to all of us and the activities we engage in to sustain and enhance our quality of life? This paper addresses some of the complexities of answering such a question, especially as society increasingly recognizes the need to provide flow regimes that will maintain healthy aquatic and floodplain ecosystems that also impact the economic, physical and even the spiritual quality of our lives. For we depend on these ecosystems to sustain our wellbeing. We are indeed a part of our ecosystems. We depend upon on aquatic ecosystems to moderate river flow qualities and quantities, reduce the extremes of floods and droughts, reduce erosion, detoxify and decompose waterborne wastes, generate and preserve flood plain soils and renew their fertility, regulate disease carrying organisms, and to enhance recreational benefits of river systems. This question of deciding just how much water to allocate to each water user and for the maintenance of viable aquatic ecosystems, especially when there is not enough, is a complex, and largely political, issue. This issue is likely to become even more complex and political and contentious in the future as populations grow and as water quantities and their qualities become even more variable and uncertain.

关键词: water stress     aquatic ecosystems     sustainable water resource allocations     ecosystem water requirements    

Drinking water quality & health risk assessment of secondary water supply systems in residential neighborhoods

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2024年 第18卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-024-1778-5

摘要:

● Most water samples had excellent quality and negligible or acceptable health risks.

关键词: Drinking water quality     Water quality index     Health risk assessment     Secondary water supply systems     Heavy metals    

The effect of different agricultural management practices on irrigation efficiency, water use efficiencyand green and blue water footprint

La ZHUO, Arjen Y. HOEKSTRA

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第2期   页码 185-194 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2017149

摘要: This paper explores the effect of varying agricultural management practices on different water efficiency indicators: irrigation efficiency (IE), crop water use efficiency (WUE), and green and blue water footprint (WF). We take winter wheat in an experimental field in Northern China as a case study and consider a dry, average and wet year. We conducted 24 modeling experiments with the AquaCrop model, for all possible combinations of four irrigation techniques, two irrigation strategies and three mulching methods. Results show that deficit irrigation most effectively improved blue water use, by increasing IE (by 5%) and reducing blue WF (by 38%), however with an average 9% yield reduction. Organic or synthetic mulching practices improved WUE (by 4% and 10%, respectively) and reduced blue WF (by 8% and 17%, respectively), with the same yield level. Drip and subsurface drip irrigation improved IE and WUE, but drip irrigation had a relatively large blue WF. Improvements in one water efficiency indicator may cause a decline in another. In particular, WUE can be improved by more irrigation at the cost of the blue WF. Furthermore, increasing IE, for instance by installing drip irrigation, does not necessarily reduce the blue WF.

关键词: field management     irrigation efficiency     water footprint     water productivity     water use efficiency    

Emergency drinking water treatment in source water pollution incident-technology and practice in China

Xiaojian ZHANG , Chao CHEN ,

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第3期   页码 364-368 doi: 10.1007/s11783-009-0027-2

摘要: An investigation into emergency potable water treatment technologies was conducted to investigate China’s water pollution situation. In order to confirm optimum parameters, the technological efficiency of each pollutant was obtained. About 100 contaminants were tested to find the emergency treatment technologies, most of which were found to be positive. This paper presents the three largest and most significant water pollution incidents in China to date, analyzing cases such as the nitrobenzene pollution incident in the Songhua River in November 2005, the cadmium pollution incident in the Beijiang River in December 2005, and the water crisis with odorous tap water in Wuxi City in May 2007.

关键词: emergency drinking water treatment     water pollution     adsorption     oxidation     precipitation    

Bioinspired and biomimetic membranes for water purification and chemical separation: A review

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第6期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-021-1412-8

摘要:

•The history of biological and artificial water channels is reviewed.

关键词: Aquaporins     Artificial water channels     Biomimetic membranes     Chemical separation and water purification    

Molecular analysis of bacterial community in the tap water with different water ages of a drinking water

Feng Wang, Weiying Li, Yue Li, Junpeng Zhang, Jiping Chen, Wei Zhang, Xuan Wu

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第3期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-018-1020-4

摘要: Bacterial community in the drinking water distribution system (DWDS) was regulated by multiple environmental factors, many of which varied as a function of water age. In this study, four water samples with different water ages, including finished water (FW, 0 d) and tap water (TW) [TW1 (1 d), TW2(2 d) and TW3(3 d)], were collected along with the mains of a practical DWDS, and the bacterial community was investigated by high-throughput sequencing technique. Results indicated that the residual chlorine declined with the increase of water age, accompanied by the increase of dissolved organic matter, total bacteria counts and bacterial diversity (Shannon). For bacterial community composition, although Proteobacteria phylum (84.12%-97.6%) and Alphaproteobacteria class (67.42%-93.09%) kept dominate, an evident regular was observed at the order level. In detail, the relative abundance of most of other residual orders increased with different degrees from the start to the end of the DWDS, while a downward trend was uniquely observed in terms of Rhizobiales, who was inferred to be chlorine-resistant and be helpful for inhibiting pipes corrosion. Moreover, some OTUs were found to be closely related with species possessing pathogenicity and chlorine-resistant ability, so it was recommended that the use of agents other than chlorine or agents that can act synergically with chlorine should be developed for drinking water disinfection. This paper revealed bacterial community variations along the mains of the DWDS and the result was helpful for understanding bacterial ecology in the DWDS.

关键词: Bacterial community     Water age     High-throughput sequencing technique     Drinking water distribution system    

A red water occurrence in drinking water distribution systems caused by changes in water source in Beijing

ZHANG Xiaojian,MI Zilong,WANG Yang,LIU Shuming,NIU Zhangbin,LU Pinpin,WANG Jun,GU Junnong,CHEN Chao

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第3期   页码 417-426 doi: 10.1007/s11783-013-0558-4

摘要: A red water phenomenon occurred in several communities few days after the change of water source in Beijing, China in 2008. In this study, the origin of this problem, the mechanism of iron release and various control measures were investigated. The results indicated that a significant increase in sulphate concentration as a result of the new water source was the cause of the red water phenomenon. The mechanism of iron release was found that the high-concentration sulphate in the new water source disrupted the stable shell of scale on the inner pipe and led to the release of iron compounds. Experiments showed that the iron release rate in the new source water within pipe section was over 11-fold higher than that occurring within the local source water. The recovery of tap water quality lasted several months despite ameliorative measures being implemented, including adding phosphate, reducing the overall proportion of the new water source, elevating the pH and alkalinity, and utilizing free chlorine as a disinfectant instead of chloramine. Adding phosphate was more effective and more practical than the other measures. The iron release rate was decreased after the addition of 1.5 mg·L orthophosphate- P, tripolyphosphate-P and hexametaphosphate-P by 68%, 83% and 87%, respectively. Elevating the pH and alkalinity also reduced the iron release rate by 50%. However, the iron release rate did not decreased after replacing chloramine by 0.5–0.8 mg·L of free chlorine as disinfectant.

关键词: iron release     drinking water distribution system     sulphate     phosphate     red water control     water quality stability    

Comparative genotoxicity of water processed by three drinking water treatment plants with different water

Ting Zhang, Heze Liu, Yiyuan Zhang, Wenjun Sun, Xiuwei Ao

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第3期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-020-1214-4

摘要: Genotoxicity of substances is unknown in the water after treatment processes. Genotoxicity decreased by activated carbon treatment but increased by chlorination. Halogenated hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds contribute to genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was assessed by umu test; acute and chronic toxicity by ECOSAR. Inconsistent results confirmed that genotoxicity cannot be assessed by ECOSAR. Advanced water treatment is commonly used to remove micropollutants such as pesticides, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and disinfection byproducts in modern drinking water treatment plants. However, little attention has been paid to the changes in the genotoxicity of substances remaining in the water following the different water treatment processes. In this study, samples were collected from three drinking water treatment plants with different treatment processes. The treated water from each process was analyzed and compared for genotoxicity and the formation of organic compounds. The genotoxicity was evaluated by an umu test, and the acute and chronic toxicity was analyzed through Ecological Structure- Activity Relationship (ECOSAR). The results of the umu test indicated that biological activated carbon reduced the genotoxicity by 38%, 77%, and 46% in the three drinking water treatment plants, respectively, while chlorination increased the genotoxicity. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that halogenated hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds were major contributors to genotoxicity. The results of ECOSAR were not consistent with those of the umu test. Therefore, we conclude that genotoxicity cannot be determined using ECOSAR .

关键词: Drinking water     Treatment process     Genotoxicity     Umu test     Ecological Structure-Activity Relationship    

Ceramic water filter for point-of-use water treatment in developing countries: Principles, challenges

Haiyan Yang, Shangping Xu, Derek E. Chitwood, Yin Wang

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第5期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-020-1254-9

摘要: • CWF is a sustainable POU water treatment method for developing areas. • CWF manufacturing process is critical for its filtration performance. • Simultaneous increase of flow rate and pathogen removal is a challenge. • Control of pore size distribution holds promises to improve CWF efficiency. • Novel coatings of CWFs are a promising method to improve contaminant removal. Drinking water source contamination poses a great threat to human health in developing countries. Point-of-use (POU) water treatment techniques, which improve drinking water quality at the household level, offer an affordable and convenient way to obtain safe drinking water and thus can reduce the outbreaks of waterborne diseases. Ceramic water filters (CWFs), fabricated from locally sourced materials and manufactured by local labor, are one of the most socially acceptable POU water treatment technologies because of their effectiveness, low-cost and ease of use. This review concisely summarizes the critical factors that influence the performance of CWFs, including (1) CWF manufacturing process (raw material selection, firing process, silver impregnation), and (2) source water quality. Then, an in-depth discussion is presented with emphasis on key research efforts to address two major challenges of conventional CWFs, including (1) simultaneous increase of filter flow rate and bacterial removal efficiency, and (2) removal of various concerning pollutants, such as viruses and metal(loid)s. To promote the application of CWFs, future research directions can focus on: (1) investigation of pore size distribution and pore structure to achieve higher flow rates and effective pathogen removal by elucidating pathogen transport in porous ceramic and adjusting manufacture parameters; and (2) exploration of new surface modification approaches with enhanced interaction between a variety of contaminants and ceramic surfaces.

关键词: Point-of-use water treatment     Ceramic water filter     Bacterial removal     Surface modification     Water quality    

Nanofiltration for drinking water treatment: a review

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第5期   页码 681-698 doi: 10.1007/s11705-021-2103-5

摘要: In recent decades, nanofiltration (NF) is considered as a promising separation technique to produce drinking water from different types of water source. In this paper, we comprehensively reviewed the progress of NF-based drinking water treatment, through summarizing the development of materials/fabrication and applications of NF membranes in various scenarios including surface water treatment, groundwater treatment, water reuse, brackish water treatment, and point of use applications. We not only summarized the removal of target major pollutants (e.g., hardness, pathogen, and natural organic matter), but also paid attention to the removal of micropollutants of major concern (e.g., disinfection byproducts, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, and arsenic). We highlighted that, for different applications, fit-for-purpose design is needed to improve the separation capability for target compounds of NF membranes in addition to their removal of salts. Outlook and perspectives on membrane fouling control, chlorine resistance, integrity, and selectivity are also discussed to provide potential insights for future development of high-efficiency NF membranes for stable and reliable drinking water treatment.

关键词: nanofiltration     drinking water     disinfection byproducts     micropollutants     selectivity    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Water, energy and food interactions–Challenges and opportunities

Gustaf OLSSON

期刊论文

An Empirical Study on the Generation Mechanism of NIMBY Conflicts of Construction Projects

Guang-she Jia,Song-yu Yan,Wen-jun Wang,Ralf Müller,Chen Lin

期刊论文

Modeling China’s energy dilemma: conflicts among energy saving, energy security, and CO 2 mitigation

Feng FU, Zheng LI, Linwei MA,

期刊论文

通过解决先验数据冲突实现自适应图神经网络

吴旭刚,邬会军,王睿伯,周旭,卢凯

期刊论文

水·水资源·农业节水

刘更另

期刊论文

Managing water for life

Daniel P. LOUCKS, Haifeng JIA

期刊论文

Drinking water quality & health risk assessment of secondary water supply systems in residential neighborhoods

期刊论文

The effect of different agricultural management practices on irrigation efficiency, water use efficiencyand green and blue water footprint

La ZHUO, Arjen Y. HOEKSTRA

期刊论文

Emergency drinking water treatment in source water pollution incident-technology and practice in China

Xiaojian ZHANG , Chao CHEN ,

期刊论文

Bioinspired and biomimetic membranes for water purification and chemical separation: A review

期刊论文

Molecular analysis of bacterial community in the tap water with different water ages of a drinking water

Feng Wang, Weiying Li, Yue Li, Junpeng Zhang, Jiping Chen, Wei Zhang, Xuan Wu

期刊论文

A red water occurrence in drinking water distribution systems caused by changes in water source in Beijing

ZHANG Xiaojian,MI Zilong,WANG Yang,LIU Shuming,NIU Zhangbin,LU Pinpin,WANG Jun,GU Junnong,CHEN Chao

期刊论文

Comparative genotoxicity of water processed by three drinking water treatment plants with different water

Ting Zhang, Heze Liu, Yiyuan Zhang, Wenjun Sun, Xiuwei Ao

期刊论文

Ceramic water filter for point-of-use water treatment in developing countries: Principles, challenges

Haiyan Yang, Shangping Xu, Derek E. Chitwood, Yin Wang

期刊论文

Nanofiltration for drinking water treatment: a review

期刊论文