Township hospitals, the main provider of rural primary healthcare in China, are severely understaffed. International studies on factors influencing rural working are increasing; however, studies on factors affecting the recruitment and retention of health workers in Chinese township hospitals are limited. The current study aims to understand the motivation of health workers and arrive at a systematic framework of pluralistic factors that would help support health workers in terms of receiving posts and remaining in posts in township hospitals. A three-stage integrated quantitative and qualitative methodology was employed. First, a survey on 120 directors of township hospitals was conducted to learn the latest status of health workers in township hospitals and distinguish existing problems. Second, after sending these problems back to the directors, an open-ended pen-and-paper survey was conducted to ask the directors to identify the factors influencing the attraction and retention of health workers in township hospitals. Third, four focus groups were conducted to gauge the underlying reasons. Five problems from the questionnaire survey were recognized, and numbers of thematic factors were identified at the individual, professional, and treatment environment from the pen-and-paper survey and focus group. Similar to other studies, this framing of both non-financial and financial elements affected the attraction and retention of health workers in township hospitals, thereby filling the gap in a Chinese context. Although several factors had been recognized earlier, our findings further highlighted the importance of these factors. Meanwhile, the factors identified in this study were barely explored in literature. This paper identifies and develops multi-faceted factors to call for a bundled package of multidimensional incentives if decision-makers get interested. The evidence-based findings in our study can be used to provide China-specific policy recommendations on how to recruit and retain health workers in rural areas of China.