Caveolae are a kind of specific cystic structures of lipid rafts in the cytoplasmic membrane and are rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids. In recent years, many researchers have found that both caveolins and caveolae play a role in the development of various human diseases, including coronary heart disease, hypertension, and nervous system disorders. The specific mechanisms by which caveolins induce diseases have been a topic of interest. However, a number of detailed molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. This article focuses on the relationship between caveolin proteins and human diseases and reviews the molecular mechanisms of caveolins in disease networks.