We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (Paxlovid) therapy for hemodialysis-dependent patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Thirteen hemodialysis patients infected with the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 from April 3 to May 30, 2022, were recruited. Laboratory parameters and chest CT (computed tomography) imaging were analyzed. The treatment group included six patients who received 150 mg/100 mg of Paxlovid orally once daily for 5 days, whereas the control group included seven patients who received basic treatment. No serious adverse reactions or safety events were recorded. Four control patients progressed to moderate disease, and none in the treatment group showed progression of chest CT findings (P < 0.05). Paxlovid therapy tended toward early viral clearance and low viral load on Day 8. Moreover, 83.3% of the patients in the treatment group and 57.1% of the patients in the control group turned negative within 22 days. In the Paxlovid treatment group, we found significantly increased levels of lymphocytes (P=0.03) and eosinophils (P=0.02) and decreased levels of D-dimer on Day 8 compared with those on Day 1. Paxlovid therapy showed a potential therapeutic effect with good tolerance in hemodialysis patients. The optimal dose and effectiveness evaluation must be further investigated in a largeer cohort.