This study demonstrated a promising method for quickly extracting tea polyphenol (TP) by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technology. Some influential parameters, including MAE temperature, microwave power, concentration of extraction solvent, MAE time and the solid/liquid ratio, were investigated. The optimum condition of MAE was obtained by dual extraction with 60% ethanol (v/v) and the solid/liquid ratio 1:12 g/mL at 80°C for 10 minutes under the microwave power 600 W. The yield of TP was 96.5% under the described condition. Compared with traditional methods, including hot reflux extraction (HRE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), the extraction time was saved 8 times than that of HRE, and the yield was increased by 17.5%. The extraction time at comparable levels of production was saved 2 times, and the energy consumption was one fourth that of UAE. The extraction time was saved 5 times than that of SFE, and the yield of TP was increased by 40%. Moreover, compared with MAE of TP studied by others, it decreased the solid/liquid ratio from 1 ∶ 20 to 1 ∶ 12 g/mL without 90-min pre-leaching time, and the yield of TP was increased by 6%–40%.