The influence of the NCO/OH ratio and the 1,6-hexanediol/dimethylol propionic acid molar ratio on the properties of waterborne polyurethane dispersions based on 1,5-pentamethylene diisocyanate
1,5-Pentamethylene diisocyanate, a novel aliphatic diisocyanate formed from bio-based 1,5-pentamethylenediamine, has been used as a hard segmented material to synthesize polyurethane. In this study, several waterborne polyurethane (WPU) dispersions have been successfully prepared by a prepolymer process from 1,5-pentamethylene diisocyanate poly(polyether) with different NCO/OH ratios and 1,6-hexanediol (HDO)/dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA) molar ratios. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and a mechanical tensile test were used to investigate the structures, thermal stability, phase separation, crystallinity, mechanical properties, and adhesive performance of the WPU dispersions. The FTIR results indicate that the degree of hydrogen bonding and the numbers of urea groups increase as the NCO/OH ratio and HDO/DMPA molar ratio increase. Furthermore, the phase separation increases and the thermal stability decreases as the NCO/OH ratio increases or the HDO/DMPA molar ratio decreases. Finally, WPU3.0-2.4 (NCO/OH=3, HDO/DMPA=2.4) exhibits a maximum tensile strength and shear strength, pointing to its possible use as an adhesive. These results could provide a very valuable reference for industrial applications of WPU.