As a hybrid energy storage device of lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, lithium-ion capacitors have the potential to meet the demanding needs of energy storage equipment with both high power and energy density. In this work, to solve the obstacle to the application of lithium-ion capacitors, that is, the balancing problem of the electrodes kinetic and capacity, two electrodes are designed and adequately matched. For the anode, we introduced in situ carbon-doped and surface-enriched unsaturated sulfur into the graphene conductive network to prepare transition metal sulfides, which enhances the performance with a faster lithium-ion diffusion and dominant pseudocapacitive energy storage. Therefore, the lithium-ion capacitors anode material delivers a remarkable capacity of 810 mAh∙g–1 after 500 cycles at 1 A∙g–1. On the other hand, the biomass-derived porous carbon as the cathode also displays a superior capacity of 114.2 mAh∙g–1 at 0.1 A∙g–1. Benefitting from the appropriate balance of kinetic and capacity between two electrodes, the lithium-ion capacitors exhibits superior electrochemical performance. The assembled lithium-ion capacitors demonstrate a high energy density of 132.9 Wh∙kg–1 at the power density of 265 W∙kg–1, and 50.0 Wh∙kg–1 even at 26.5 kW∙kg–1. After 10000 cycles at 1 A∙g–1, lithium-ion capacitors still demonstrate the high energy density retention of 81.5%.