To evaluate the ecological effects of lakeshore wetland rehabilitation on the eastern route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project, species composition, coverage, height, and biomass of wetland communities at 22 sites of the study area on the shore of Nansi Lake in April and May 2007 were investigated. The wetlands under investigation were divided into platform fields, transition zones, and shallow water zones according to differences in elevations, water levels, and human activities. The species richness index, Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index, and Pielou Evenness index were adopted to delineate and discuss the ecological effects of lakeshore wetland rehabilitation in 22 quadrates. Results showed that the species richness of the wetland areas after 2 years’ rehabilitation amounted to 47 of 24 families, higher than 25 of 20 families in areas without rehabilitation. The biodiversity index and abundance index of rehabilitated areas were also higher than those of platform fields and fish ponds where there was no rehabilitation. In addition, the Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index, and community evenness index of platform fields in rehabilitated wetland areas were 1.619, 0.745, and 0.860, respectively, higher than those of the platform fields before rehabilitating. The results suggested that the constructed lakeshore wetland played an important role in protecting the diversity of species.