Identifying human-induced influence on microbial community: A comparative study in the effluent-receiving areas in Hangzhou Bay
Abstract Microbial compositions showed high differences in two study areas. COD was the key anthropogenic indicator in the coastal wastewater disposal area. Distinctive microbes capable of degrading toxic pollutants were screened. Microbial communities in effluent-receiving areas followed “niche theory”. Microbial community structure is affected by both natural processes and human activities. In coastal area, anthropegenetic activity can usually lead to the discharge of the effluent from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to sea, and thus the water quality chronically turns worse and marine ecosystem becomes unhealthy. Microorganisms play key roles in pollutants degradation and ecological restoration; however, there are few studies about how the WWTP effluent disposal influences coastal microbial communities. In this study, sediment samples were collected from two WWTP effluent-receiving areas (abbreviated as JX and SY) in Hangzhou Bay. First, based on the high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene, microbial community structure was analyzed. Secondly, several statistical analyses were conducted to reveal the microbial community characteristics in response to the effluent disposal. Using PCoA, the significant difference of in microbial community structure was determined between JX and SY; using RDA, water COD and temperature, and sediment available phosphate and ammonia nitrogen were identified as the key environmental factors for the community difference; using LDA effect size analysis, the most distinctive microbes were found and their correlations with environmental factors were investigated; and according to detrended beta-nearest-taxon-index, the sediment microbial communities were found to follow “niche theory”. An interesting and important finding was that in SY that received more and toxic COD, many distinctive microbes were related to the groups that were capable of degrading toxic organic pollutants. This study provides a clear illustration of eco-environmental deterioration under the long-term human pressure from the view of microbial ecology.
article in issue
article in issue