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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering >> 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2 doi: 10.1007/s11783-019-1213-5

Zero-valent manganese nanoparticles coupled with different strong oxidants for thallium removal from wastewater

1. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
2. Institute of Environmental Research at Greater Bay Area, Key Laboratory for Water Quality and Conservation of Pearl River Delta (Ministry of Education), Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
3. School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China

Available online: 2020-02-11

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• Nano zero-valent manganese (nZVMn, Mn0) is synthesized via borohydrides reduction. • Mn0 combined with persulfate/hypochlorite is effective for Tl removal at pH 6-12. • Mn0 can activate persulfate to form hydroxyl and sulfate radicals. • Oxidation-induced precipitation and surface complexation contribute to Tl removal. • Combined Mn0-oxidants process is promising in the environmental field. Nano zero-valent manganese (nZVMn, Mn0) was prepared through a borohydride reduction method and coupled with different oxidants (persulfate (S2O82−), hypochlorite (ClO−), or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)) to remove thallium (Tl) from wastewater. The surface of Mn0 was readily oxidized to form a core-shell composite (MnOx@Mn0), which consists of Mn0 as the inner core and MnOx (MnO, Mn2O3, and Mn3O4) as the outer layer. When Mn0 was added alone, effective Tl(I) removal was achieved at high pH levels (>12). The Mn0-H2O2 system was only effective in Tl(I) removal at high pH (>12), while the Mn0-S2O82− or Mn0-ClO− system had excellent Tl(I) removal (>96%) over a broad pH range (4–12). The Mn0-S2O82− oxidation system provided the best resistance to interference from an external organic matrix. The isotherm of Tl(I) removal through the Mn0-S2O82− system followed the Freundlich model. The Mn0 nanomaterials can activate persulfate to produce sulfate radicals and hydroxyl radicals. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggested that oxidation-induced precipitation, surface adsorption, and electrostatic attraction are the main mechanisms for Tl(I) removal resulting from the combination of Mn0 and oxidants. Mn0 coupled with S2O82−/ClO− is a novel and effective technique for Tl(I) removal, and its application in other fields is worthy of further investigation.

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