Enhanced debromination of 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) by zero-valent zinc with ascorbic acid
Abstract Highly efficient debromination of BDE-47 was achieved in the ZVZ/AA system. BDE-47 debromination by the ZVZ/AA can be applied to a wide range of pH. AA inhibits the formation of (hydr)oxide and accelerates the corrosion of ZVZ. Reduction mechanism of BDE-47 debromination by the ZVZ/AA system was proposed. A new technique of zero-valent zinc coupled with ascorbic acid (ZVZ/AA) was developed and applied to debrominate the 2,2′,4,4′-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), which achieved high conversion and rapid debromination of BDE-47 to less- or non-toxic forms. The reaction conditions were optimized by the addition of 100 mg/L ZVZ particles and 3 mmol/L AA at original solution pH= 4.00 using the solvent of methanol/H2O (v:v= 4:6), which could convert approximately 94% of 5 mg/L BDE-47 into lower-brominated diphenyl ethers within a 90 min at the ZVZ/AA system. The high debromination of BDE-47 was mainly attributed to the effect of AA that inhibits the formation of Zn(II)(hydr)oxide passivation layers and promotes the corrosion of ZVZ, which leads to increase the reactivity of ZVZ. Additionally, ion chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses revealed that bromine ion and lower-debromination diphenyl ethers formed during the reduction of BDE-47. Furthermore, based on the generation of the intermediates products, and its concentration changes over time, it was proposed that the dominant pathway for conversion of BDE-47 was sequential debromination and the final products were diphenyl ethers. These results suggested that the ZVZ/AA system has the potential for highly efficient debromination of BDE-47 from wastewater.
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