China is the largest producer and user of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), and the rapid growth of infrastructure development demands more sustainable building materials for concrete structures. Alkaliactivated materials (AAMs) are a new type of energy-saving and environmentally friendly building material with a wide range of potential applications. This paper compares the durability of AAMs and OPCbased materials under sulfate attack, acid corrosion, carbonation, and chloride penetration. Different AAMs have shown distinct durability properties due to different compositions being formed when different raw materials are used. According to the calcium (Ca) concentration of the raw materials, this paper interprets the deterioration mechanisms of three categories of AAMs: calcium-free, low-calcium, and calcium-rich. Conflicts found in the most recent research are highlighted, as they raise concerns regarding the consistence and long-term properties of AAMs. Nevertheless, AAMs show better durability performances than OPC-based materials in general.