Research Geodesy and Survey Engineering
Detection of the Pine Wilt Disease Tree Candidates for Drone Remote Sensing Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques
Division of Science Education, Kangwon National University, Gangwon-do 24341, Republic of KoreaReceived：2018-10-20 Revised：2020-03-04 Accepted： 2020-06-30 Available online：2020-07-07
Pine wilt disease (PWD) has recently caused substantial pine tree losses in Republic of Korea. PWD is considered a severe problem due to the importance of pine trees to Korean people, so this problem must be handled appropriately. Previously, we examined the history of PWD and found that it had already spread to some regions of Republic of Korea; these became our study area. Early detection of PWD is required. We used drone remote sensing techniques to detect trees with similar symptoms to trees infected with PWD. Drone remote sensing was employed because it yields high-quality images and can easily reach the locations of pine trees. To differentiate healthy pine trees from those with PWD, we produced a land cover (LC) map from drone images collected from the villages of Anbi and Wonchang by classifying them using two classifier methods, i.e., artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM). Furthermore, compared the accuracy of two types of Global Positioning System (GPS) data, collected using drone and hand-held devices, for identifying the locations of trees with PWD. We then divided the drone images into six LC classes for each study area and found that the SVM was more accurate than the ANN at classifying trees with PWD. In Anbi, the SVM had an overall accuracy of 94.13%, which is 6.7% higher than the overall accuracy of the ANN, which was 87.43%. We obtained similar results in Wonchang, for which the accuracy of the SVM and ANN was 86.59% and 79.33%, respectively. In terms of the GPS data, we used two type of hand-held GPS device. GPS device 1 is corrected by referring to the benchmarks sited on both locations, while the GPS device 2 is uncorrected device which used the default setting of the GPS only. The data collected from hand-held GPS device 1 was better than those collected using hand-held GPS device 2 in Wonchang. However, in Anbi, we obtained better results from GPS device 2 than from GPS device 1. In Anbi, the error in the data from GPS device 1 was 7.08 m, while that of the GPS device 2 data was 0.14 m. In conclusion, both classifiers can distinguish between healthy trees and those with PWD based on LC data. LC data can also be used for other types of classification. There were some differences between the hand-held and drone GPS datasets from both areas.
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