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Engineering >> 2022, Volume 16, Issue 9 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2020.11.009

Real-Time Black Carbon Emissions from Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles Using a Portable Emissions Measurement System

a College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
b School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
c Center for Sustainable Systems, School for Environment and Sustainability, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-1041, United States
d State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Sources and Control of Air Pollution Complex, Beijing 100084, China

Received: 2020-05-09 Revised: 2020-08-23 Accepted: 2020-11-22 Available online: 2021-04-30

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Black carbon (BC) is considered the second largest anthropogenic climate forcer, but the radiative effects of BC are highly correlated with its combustion sources. On-road vehicles are an important source of anthropogenic BC. However, there are major uncertainties in the estimates of the BC emissions from on-road light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPVs), and results obtained with the portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) method are particularly lacking. We developed a PEMS platform and evaluated the on-road BC emissions from ten in-use LDPVs. We demonstrated that the BC emission factors (EFs) of gasoline direction injection (GDI) engine vehicles range from 1.10 to 1.56 mg·km−1, which are higher than the EFs of port fuel injection (PFI) engine vehicles (0.10–0.17 mg·km−1) by a factor of 11. The BC emissions during the cold-start phase contributed 2%–33% to the total emissions. A strong correlation (R2 = 0.70) was observed between the relative BC EFs and average vehicle speed, indicating that traffic congestion alleviation could effectively mitigate BC emissions. Moreover, BC and particle number (PN) emissions were linearly correlated (R2 = 0.90), and compared to PFI engine vehicles, the instantaneous PN-to-BC emission rates of GDI engine vehicles were less sensitive to vehicle-specific power-to-velocity (VSPV) increase in all speed ranges.


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