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Engineering >> 2023, Volume 30, Issue 11 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2022.12.010

An Integrated Framework for Geothermal Energy Storage with CO2 Sequestration and Utilization

a State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum (Beijing), Beijing 102249, China
b School of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum (Beijing), Beijing 102249, China
c College of Carbon Neutrality Future Technology, China University of Petroleum (Beijing), Beijing 102249, China
d Equinor ASA, Stavanger 4035, Norway
e Department of Petroleum Engineering, Cullen College of Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
f Center for Energy and Resources Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby 2800, Denmark
g Petroleum Systems Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada
h Institute of Mechanics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119192, Russia

Received: 2022-09-13 Revised: 2022-11-28 Accepted: 2022-12-23 Available online: 2023-03-08

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Subsurface geothermal energy storage has greater potential than other energy storage strategies in terms of capacity scale and time duration. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is regarded as a potential medium for energy storage due to its superior thermal properties. Moreover, the use of CO2 plumes for geothermal energy storage mitigates the greenhouse effect by storing CO2 in geological bodies. In this work, an integrated framework is proposed for synergistic geothermal energy storage and CO2 sequestration and utilization. Within this framework, CO2 is first injected into geothermal layers for energy accumulation. The resultant high-energy CO2 is then introduced into a target oil reservoir for CO2 utilization and geothermal energy storage. As a result, CO2 is sequestrated in the geological oil reservoir body. The results show that, as high-energy CO2 is injected, the average temperature of the whole target reservoir is greatly increased. With the assistance of geothermal energy, the geological utilization efficiency of CO2 is higher, resulting in a 10.1% increase in oil displacement efficiency. According to a storage-potential assessment of the simulated CO2 site, 110 years after the CO2 injection, the utilization efficiency of the geological body will be as high as 91.2%, and the final injection quantity of the CO2 in the site will be as high as 9.529 × 108 tonnes. After 1000 years sequestration, the supercritical phase dominates in CO2 sequestration, followed by the liquid phase and then the mineralized phase. In addition, CO2 sequestration accounting for dissolution trapping increases significantly due to the presence of residual oil. More importantly, CO2 exhibits excellent performance in storing geothermal energy on a large scale; for example, the total energy stored in the studied geological body can provide the yearly energy supply for over 3.5×107 normal households. Application of this integrated approach holds great significance for large-scale geothermal energy storage and the achievement of carbon neutrality by 2050.

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