Phosphorus (P) is a non-renewable resource, therefore ensuring global food and environmental security depends upon sustainable P management. To achieve this goal, sustainable P management in the upstream and downstream sectors of agriculture from mineral extraction to food consumption must be addressed systematically. The innovation and feasibility of P sustainability are highlighted from the perspective of the whole P-based chain, including the mining and processing of P rock, production of P fertilizers, soil and rhizosphere processes involving P, absorption and utilization of P by plants, P in livestock production, as well as flow and management of P at the catchment scale. The paper also emphasizes the importance of recycling P and the current challenges of P recovery. Finally, sustainable solutions of holistic P management are proposed from the perspective of technology improvement with policy support.