Knowledge of evapotranspiration (ET) and energy partitioning is useful for optimizing water management, especially in areas where water is scarce. A study was undertaken in a furrow-irrigated vineyard (2015) and a drip-irrigated vineyard (2017) in an arid region of north-west China to compare vineyard ET and energy partitioning and their responses to soil water content (SWC) and leaf area index (LAI). ET and soil evaporation (E) and transpiration (T) were determined using eddy covariance, microlysimeters, and sap flow. Seasonal average E/ET, T/ET, crop coefficient (Kc), evaporation coefficient (Ke), and basal crop coefficient (Kcb) were 0.50, 0.50, 0.67, 0.35, and 0.29, respectively, in the furrow-irrigated vineyard and 0.42, 0.58, 0.57, 0.29, and 0.43 in the drip-irrigated vineyard. The seasonal average partitioning of net radiation (Rn) into the latent heat flux (LE), sensible heat flux (H) and soil heat flux (G) (LE/Rn, H/Rn, and G/Rn), evaporative fraction (EF) and Bowen ratio (β) were 0.57, 0.26, 0.17, 0.69 and 0.63, respectively, in the furrow-irrigated vineyard and 0.46, 0.36, 0.17, 0.57 and 0.97 in the drip-irrigated vineyard. The LE/Rn, H/Rn, EF, and β were linearly correlated with LAI. The E, Kc, Ke, E/ET, LE/Rn, LEs/Rn (ratio of LE by soil E to Rn), H/Rn, EF and β were closely correlated with topsoil SWC (10 cm depth). Responses of ET and energy partitioning to the LAI and SWC differed under the two irrigation methods. Drip irrigation reduced seasonal average E/ET and increased average T/ET. From the perspective of energy partitioning, seasonal average H/Rn increased whereas LE/Rn, especially LEs/Rn, decreased. Compared with furrow irrigation, drip irrigation decreased the proportion of unproductive water consumption thereby contributing to enhanced water use efficiency and accumulation of dry matter.