Plants growing in natural soils encounter diverse biotic and abiotic stresses and have adapted with sophisticated strategies to deal with complex environments such as changing root system structure, evoking biochemical responses and recruiting microbial partners. Under selection pressure, plants and their associated microorganisms assemble into a functional entity known as a holobiont. The commonest cooperative interaction is between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. About 80% of terrestrial plants can form AM symbiosis with the ancient phylum Glomeromycota. A very large network of extraradical and intraradical mycelium of AM fungi connects the underground biota and the nearby carbon and nutrient fluxes. Here, we discuss recent progress on the regulators of AM associations with plants, AM fungi and their surrounding environments, and explore further mechanistic insights.