Industrial Internet links the new-generation information technology and advanced industries; therefore, industrial Internet standardization is crucial for both the innovative development of the industrial Internet and the effective connection of all links in the industrial chain. In this study, we review the foundation work conducted in China and abroad for the standardization of the industrial Internet in fields such as industrial network, big data, platform, and information security, and summarize the problems faced by industrial Internet standardization. Moreover, a framework of the industrial Internet standards system is proposed, consisting of basic and common, network, data, platform, and security standards. An implementation path for industrial Internet standardization is proposed and demonstrated, focusing on common demand in key areas such as reference architecture construction; interconnectivity in data circulation, processing, and use; monitoring control and decision optimization; and network security. Advancing the industrial Internet standards system requires accelerating breakthroughs for key industrial Internet standards, strengthening the application and promotion of standards, and cultivate and improve the industrial ecology.