Available online: 2023-02-15
Targeting the net-zero emission (NZE) by 2050, the hydrogen industry is drastically developing in recent years. However, the technologies of hydrogen upstream production, midstream transportation and storage, and downstream utilization are facing obstacles. In this paper, the development of hydrogen industry from the production, transportation and storage, and sustainable economic development perspectives were reviewed. The current challenges and future outlooks were summarized consequently. In the upstream, blue hydrogen is dominating the current hydrogen supply, and an implementation of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) can raise its cost by 30%. To achieve an economic feasibility, green hydrogen needs to reduce its cost by 75% to approximately 2 /kg at the large scale. The research progress in the midterm sector is still in a preliminary stage, where experimental and theoretical investigations need to be conducted in addressing the impact of embrittlement, contamination, and flammability so that they could provide a solid support for material selection and large-scale feasibility studies. In the downstream utilization, blue hydrogen will be used in producing value-added chemicals in the short-term. Over the long-term, green hydrogen will dominate the market owing to its high energy intensity and zero carbon intensity which provides a promising option for energy storage. Technologies in the hydrogen industry require a comprehensive understanding of their economic and environmental benefits over the whole life cycle in supporting operators and policymakers.