Available online: 2023-10-31
Biomolecular condensates formed by phase separation are widespread and play critical roles in many physiological and pathological processes. cGAS-STING signaling functions to detect aberrant DNA signals to initiate anti-infection defense and antitumor immunity. At the same time, cGAS-STING signaling must be carefully regulated to maintain immune homeostasis. Interestingly, exciting recent studies have reported that biomolecular phase separation exists and plays important roles in different steps of cGAS-STING signaling, including cGAS condensates, STING condensates, and IRF3 condensates. In addition, several intracellular and extracellular factors have been proposed to modulate the condensates in cGAS-STING signaling. These studies reveal novel activation and regulation mechanisms of cGAS-STING signaling and provide new opportunities for drug discovery. Here, we summarize recent advances in the phase separation of cGAS-STING signaling and the development of potential drugs targeting these innate immune condensates.