As the fact that schedulers usually utilizing resources re-allocation and improving resource-utilization efficiency in coping with project delay caused by risk events，a stochastic simulation evaluation method based on duration controllability of network schedule was put forward. This method took the resource allocation and utilization of margin of the activity as controllable indicators， and considered different constructability of measures reaction to different occur time of risk events. Through the stochastic simulation of each risk events occur time， delay of activity duration and effect of the risk reaction，the distribution of project duration was simulated which was utilized to evaluate the rationality of the network schedule. A case indicates that，compared with traditional simulation evaluation methods such as duration-based and factors-based Monte-Carlo simulation， simulation results of the duration controllability-based is more reasonable.
A neuroprosthesis is a type of precision medical device that is intended to manipulate the neuronal signals of the brain in a closed-loop fashion, while simultaneously receiving stimuli from the environment and controlling some part of a human brain or body. Incoming visual information can be processed by the brain in millisecond intervals. The retina computes visual scenes and sends its output to the cortex in the form of neuronal spikes for further computation. Thus, the neuronal signal of interest for a retinal neuroprosthesis is the neuronal spike. Closed-loop computation in a neuroprosthesis includes two stages: encoding a stimulus as a neuronal signal, and decoding it back into a stimulus. In this paper, we review some of the recent progress that has been achieved in visual computation models that use spikes to analyze natural scenes that include static images and dynamic videos. We hypothesize that in order to obtain a better understanding of the computational principles in the retina, a hypercircuit view of the retina is necessary, in which the different functional network motifs that have been revealed in the cortex neuronal network are taken into consideration when interacting with the retina. The different building blocks of the retina, which include a diversity of cell types and synaptic connections—both chemical synapses and electrical synapses (gap junctions)—make the retina an ideal neuronal network for adapting the computational techniques that have been developed in artificial intelligence to model the encoding and decoding of visual scenes. An overall systems approach to visual computation with neuronal spikes is necessary in order to advance the next generation of retinal neuroprosthesis as an artificial visual system.
Exploring the physical mechanisms of complex systems and making effective use of them are the keys to dealing with the complexity of the world. The emergence of big data and the enhancement of computing power, in conjunction with the improvement of optimization algorithms, are leading to the development of artificial intelligence (AI) driven by deep learning. However, deep learning fails to reveal the underlying logic and physical connotations of the problems being solved. Mesoscience provides a concept to understand the mechanism of the spatiotemporal multiscale structure of complex systems, and its capability for analyzing complex problems has been validated in different fields. This paper proposes a research paradigm for AI, which introduces the analytical principles of mesoscience into the design of deep learning models. This is done to address the fundamental problem of deep learning models detaching the physical prototype from the problem being solved; the purpose is to promote the sustainable development of AI.
Materials development has historically been driven by human needs and desires, and this is likely to continue in the foreseeable future. The global population is expected to reach ten billion by 2050, which will promote increasingly large demands for clean and high-efficiency energy, personalized consumer products, secure food supplies, and professional healthcare. New functional materials that are made and tailored for targeted properties or behaviors will be the key to tackling this challenge. Traditionally, advanced materials are found empirically or through experimental trial-and-error approaches. As big data generated by modern experimental and computational techniques is becoming more readily available, data-driven or machine learning (ML) methods have opened new paradigms for the discovery and rational design of materials. In this review article, we provide a brief introduction on various ML methods and related software or tools. Main ideas and basic procedures for employing ML approaches in materials research are highlighted. We then summarize recent important applications of ML for the large-scale screening and optimal design of polymer and porous materials, catalytic materials, and energetic materials. Finally, concluding remarks and an outlook are provided.