• Good access to traffic information provides enormous potential for automotive powertrain control. We propose a logical control approach for the gearshift strategy, aimed at improving the fuel efficiency of vehicles. The driver power demand in a specific position usually exhibits stochastic features and can be statistically analyzed in accordance with historical driving data and instant traffic conditions; therefore, it offers opportunities for the design of a gearshift control scheme. Due to the discrete characteristics of a gearshift, the control design of the gearshift strategy can be formulated under a logic system framework. To this end, vehicle dynamics are discretized with several logic states, and then modeled as a logic system with the Markov process model. The fuel optimization problem is constructed as a receding-horizon optimal control problem under the logic system framework, and a dynamic programming algorithm with algebraic operations is applied to determine the optimal strategy online. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control design has better potential for fuel efficiency improvement than the conventional method.
  • The mechanical properties, microstructures, fatigue properties and fatigue fractures of the conventional C-Mn wheel steels and the low- carbon low- silicon phosphorus/chromium-contained transformation induced plasticity(TRIP)steel were investigated. Results revealed that the new-type TRIP steel possessed similar yield strength , tensile strength increased by 100~150 MPa and fatigue limit increased by 50~140 MPa,compared with the conventional C-Mn wheel steels. The fatigue limit increased with the increase of the tensile strength. The steel containing ferrite,bainite and retained austenite had a higher fatigue limit than the steel containing ferrite,bainite and pearlite or steel containing ferrite,pearlite and martensite-austenite islands.

  • • A novel conductive carbon black modified lead dioxide electrode is synthesized. • The modified PbO2 electrode exhibits enhanced electrochemical performances. • BBD method could predict optimal experiment conditions accurately and reliably. • The modified electrode possesses outstanding reusability and safety. The secondary pollution caused by modification of an electrode due to doping of harmful materials has long been a big concern. In this study, an environmentally friendly material, conductive carbon black, was adopted for modification of lead dioxide electrode (PbO2). It was observed that the as-prepared conductive carbon black modified electrode (C-PbO2) exhibited an enhanced electrocatalytical performance and more stable structure than a pristine PbO2 electrode, and the removal efficiency of metronidazole (MNZ) and COD by a 1.0% C-PbO2 electrode at optimal conditions was increased by 24.66% and 7.01%, respectively. Results revealed that the electrochemical degradation of MNZ wastewater followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. This intimates that the presence of conductive carbon black could improve the current efficiency, promote the generation of hydroxyl radicals, and accelerate the removal of MNZ through oxidation. In addition, MNZ degradation pathways through a C-PbO2 electrode were proposed based on the identified intermediates. To promote the electrode to treat antibiotic wastewater, optimal experimental conditions were predicted through the Box-Behnken design (BBD) method. The results of this study suggest that a C-PbO2 electrode may represent a promising functional material to pretreat antibiotic wastewaters.
  • Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES) is at pilot scale. Air cooling and liquefaction stores energy; reheating revaporises the air at pressure, powering a turbine or engine (Ameel et al., 2013). Liquefaction requires water & CO removal, preventing ice fouling. This paper proposes subsequent geological storage of this CO – offering a novel Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) by-product, for the energy storage industry. It additionally assesses the scale constraint and economic opportunity offered by implementing this CDR approach. Similarly, established Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) uses air compression and subsequent expansion. CAES could also add CO scrubbing and subsequent storage, at extra cost. CAES stores fewer joules per kilogram of air than LAES – potentially scrubbing more CO per joule stored. Operational LAES/CAES technologies cannot offer full-scale CDR this century (Stocker et al., 2014), yet they could offer around 4% of projected CO disposals for LAES and<25% for current-technology CAES. LAES CDR could reach trillion-dollar scale this century (20 billion USD/year, to first order). A larger, less certain commercial CDR opportunity exists for modified conventional CAES, due to additional equipment requirements. CDR may be commercially critical for LAES/CAES usage growth, and the necessary infrastructure may influence plant scaling and placement. A suggested design for low-pressure CAES theoretically offers global-scale CDR potential within a century (ignoring siting constraints) – but this must be costed against competing CDR and energy storage technologies.
  • Nano-zero-valent irons (nZVI) have shown great potential to function as universal and low-cost magnetic adsorbents. Yet, the rapid agglomeration and easy surface corrosion of nZVI in solution greatly hinders their overall applicability. Here, carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals (CCNC), widely available from renewable biomass resources, were prepared and applied for the immobilization of nZVI. In doing so, carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals supporting nano-zero-valent irons (CCNC-nZVI) were obtained via an growth method. The CCNC-nZVI were characterized and then evaluated for their performances in wastewater treatment. The results obtained show that nZVI nanoparticles could attach to the carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of CCNC, and well disperse on the CCNC surface with a size of ~10 nm. With the CCNC acting as corrosion inhibitors improving the reaction activity of nZVI, CCNC-nZVI exhibited an improved dispersion stability and electron utilization efficacy. The Pb(II) adsorption capacity of CCNC-nZVI reached 509.3 mg·g (298.15 K, pH= 4.0), significantly higher than that of CCNC. The adsorption was a spontaneous exothermic process and could be perfectly fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. This study may provide a novel and green method for immobilizing magnetic nanomaterials by using biomass-based resources to develop effective bio-adsorbents for wastewater decontamination.
  • Gene therapy has drawn great attention in the treatments of many diseases, especially for cardiovascular diseases. However, the development of gene carriers with low cytotoxicity and multitargeting function is still a challenge. Herein, the multitargeting REDV-G-TAT-G-NLS peptide was conjugated to amphiphilic cationic copolymer poly( -caprolactone-co-3(S)-methyl-morpholine-2,5-dione)- -polyethyleneimine (PCLMD- -PEI) via a heterobifunctional orthopyridyl disulfide-poly(ethylene glycol)- -hydroxysuccinimide (OPSS-PEG-NHS) linker to prepare PCLMD- -PEI-PEG-REDV-G-TAT-G-NLS copolymers with the aim to develop the gene carriers with low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency. The multitargeting micelles were prepared from PCLMD- -PEI-PEG-REDV-G-TAT-G-NLS copolymers by self-assembly method and used to load pEGFP-ZNF580 plasmids (pDNA) to form gene complexes for enhancing the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells (ECs). The loading pDNA capacity was proved by agarose gel electrophoresis assay. These multitargeting gene complexes exhibited low cytotoxicity by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The high internalization efficiency of these gene complexes was confirmed by flow cytometry. The results of transfection demonstrated that these multitargeting gene complexes possessed relatively high transfection efficiency. The rapid migration of ECs transfected by these gene complexes was verified by wound healing assay. Owing to ECs-targeting ability, cell-penetrating ability and nuclear targeting capacity of REDV-G-TAT-G-NLS peptide, the multitargeting polycationic gene carrier with low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency has great potential in gene therapy.
  • This article presents the soil spatial variability effect on the performance of a reinforced earth wall. The serviceability limit state is considered in the analysis. Both cases of isotropic and anisotropic non-normal random fields are implemented for the soil properties. The Karhunen-Loève expansion method is used for the discretization of the random field. Numerical finite difference models are considered as deterministic models. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is used to obtain the deformation response variability of the reinforced soil retaining wall. The influences of the spatial variability response of the geotechnical system in terms of horizontal facing displacement is presented and discussed. The results obtained show that the spatial variability has an important influence on the facing horizontal displacement as well as on the failure probability.
  • Many studies on the mixture design of fly ash and slag ternary blended concrete have been conducted. However, these previous studies did not consider the effects of climate change, such as acceleration in the deterioration of durability, on mixture design. This study presents a procedure for the optimal mixture design of ternary blended concrete considering climate change and durability. First, the costs of CO emissions and material are calculated based on the concrete mixture and unit prices. Total cost is equal to the sum of material cost and CO emissions cost, and is set as the objective function of the optimization. Second, strength, slump, carbonation, and chloride ingress models are used to evaluate concrete properties. The effect of different climate change scenarios on carbonation and chloride ingress is considered. A genetic algorithm is used to find the optimal mixture considering various constraints. Third, illustrative examples are shown for mixture design of ternary blended concrete. The analysis results show that for ternary blended concrete exposed to an atmospheric environment, a rich mix is necessary to meet the challenge of climate change, and for ternary blended concrete exposed to a marine environment, the impact of climate change on mixture design is marginal.
  • To study the durability of a passenger car, this work investigates numerical simulation techniques. The investigations are based on an explicit–implicit approach in which substructure techniques are used to reduce the simulation time, allowing full vehicle dynamic analyses to be performed on a timescale that is difficult or impossible with the conventional finite element model (FEM). The model used here includes all necessary nonlinearities in order to maintain accuracy. All key components of the car structure are modeled with deformable materials. Tire–road interactions are modeled in the explicit package with contact-impact interfaces with arbitrary frictional and geometric properties. Key parameters of the responses of the car driven on six different kinds of test road surfaces are examined and compared with experimental values. It can be concluded that the explicit–implicit co-simulation techniques used here are efficient and accurate enough for engineering purposes. This paper also discusses the limitations of the proposed method and outlines possible improvements for future work.

  • To better support our new energy vehicles industry further decision, and promote the development of the industry rapidly and healthily, our research group fully research the development situation of domestic new energy vehicle industry, summarize the achievements of China's "12th Five-Year", systemly analysis the impact and effectiveness of the demonstration project and technology innovation project,and further evaluate the maturity level of technology,manufacturing and market.Finally make a pre-judgment of the base on the latest developments and rules.

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