The ecological security pattern in the Qinba Mountain Area plays a key role in maintaining a healthy ecosystem structure and regulating the ecological process in central China. Constructing a sound ecological security pattern is also an effective measure for ensuring ecological security in the Qinba Mountain Area. This study assesses the importance of four ecological service functions in the Qinba Mountain Area, namely water conservation, species diversity, ecological carbon fixation, and soil conservation. It then assigns weight to these four ecological services according to their proportion in the value of ecological assets. Based on the results of an ecosystem sensitivity analysis and the source-sink theory for landscape ecology, ecological sources of the Qinba Mountain Area are identified using optimized hot spot analysis. Moreover, potential ecological corridors are identified using the minimum cumulative resistance model; strip corridors and stepping stone corridors are further formed according to the river system, the distribution characteristics of key species, and the distribution of nature reserves in this region. Finally, the ecological security pattern of the Qinba Mountain Area is formed, including 6 important ecological patches, 10 river corridors, 2 biological channels, and 26 stepping stone corridors. This study is conducted based on the current situation of ecosystem services and can provide an important basis for the planning and layout of national parks, regional ecological protection and planning, as well as ecological civilization construction in the Qinba Mountain Area.
The Qinba Mountain Area is a concentrated poverty-stricken area and an important place concerning ecological security.Thus, the green and circular development of this region is critical for the ecological civilization construction and overall poverty alleviation in China. This study aims to explore a green and circular development path for the Qinba Mountain Area and provide engineering support for green and innovative development and poverty alleviation in this region. By using inductive and deductive methods,this study introduces the ecological and strategic values of the Qinba Mountain Area and analyzes the challenges faced by ecologicalprotection and regional coordination in this region. It further clarifies the general strategy and overall positioning of the green and circular development in this region, and proposes four specific paths, including an ecological protection path based on national parks, an industrial development path based on transformation and optimization,a space construction path based on ecological capacity, and a regional coordination path based on the win–win principle. We hope that this practice can play a demonstrative role in solving regional contradictions between ecology and poverty and in safeguarding social and ecological securities.
By summarizing Chinese aquaculture development, this paper discusses the strategic significance for further improving aquaculture. Guided by the new growth concept of green, low-carbon and carbon sink fisheries, the development strategy for environmentally friendly aquaculture is proposed, mainly including: promoting "conservation, extension and high-tech" development strategy for aquaculture modernization; realizing "high-efficient, high-quality, ecology, health and safety" mission target for aquaculture sustainable development; and the key tasks in the near era for establishing modern aquaculture innovation system, etc. Focusing on the existing problems of aquaculture industry and its developmental needs, we put forward the following suggestions: China should pay attention to the spatial demand of aquaculture, set up aquaculture carrying capacity assessment system, develop ecosystem-based new production mode of aquaculture, conduct enhancement projects for aquaculture facilities, strengthen aquaculture management and law-enforcement, etc.
The development status and trend of Chinese aquaculture disease control is analyzed in this paper, and basic judgments are made on aquatic biosecurity in China. According to the 13th Five-Year Plan, the paper summerizes the strategic objectives, priorities and principles that will benefit the aquatic biosecurity system in China. Furthermore, in order to provide theoretical support for the sustainable development of Chinese healthy aquaculture, the authors put forward some important suggestions, such as "adjusting the development policies for Chinese aquaculture under the guidance of biosecurity", "actively being geared to international standards to promote Chinese management levels on aquatic animal health", and "quickly launching and implementing a batch of key science and technology R&D programs on aquatic biosecurity". As indicated in this paper, the aquatic biosecurity is at the strategic position of national ecological security and its implementation reflect the governance capacity in aquaculture, and it should be centered on the aquatic biosecurity to lead the upgrade and reconstruction on Chinese aquaculture. It is emphasized that the biosecurity system in national and provincial genetic breeding farms for pedigree and fine varieties of aquatic species should be launched as soon as possible.
Phosphorus (P) is a non-renewable resource, therefore ensuring global food and environmental security depends upon sustainable P management. To achieve this goal, sustainable P management in the upstream and downstream sectors of agriculture from mineral extraction to food consumption must be addressed systematically. The innovation and feasibility of P sustainability are highlighted from the perspective of the whole P-based chain, including the mining and processing of P rock, production of P fertilizers, soil and rhizosphere processes involving P, absorption and utilization of P by plants, P in livestock production, as well as flow and management of P at the catchment scale. The paper also emphasizes the importance of recycling P and the current challenges of P recovery. Finally, sustainable solutions of holistic P management are proposed from the perspective of technology improvement with policy support.
Realizing sustainable development has become a global priority. This holds, in particular, for agriculture. Recently, the United Nations launched the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and the Nineteenth National People’s Congress has delivered a national strategy for sustainable development in China—realizing green development. The overall objective of Agriculture Green Development (AGD) is to coordinate “green” with “development” to realize the transformation of current agriculture with high resource consumption and high environmental costs into a green agriculture and countryside with high productivity, high resource use efficiency and low environmental impact. This is a formidable task, requiring joint efforts of government, farmers, industry, educators and researchers. The innovative concept for AGD will focus on reconstructing the whole crop-animal production and food production-consumption system, with the emphasis on high thresholds for environmental standards and food quality as well as enhanced human well-being. This paper addresses the significance, challenges, framework, pathways and potential solutions for realizing AGD in China, and highlights the potential changes that will lead to a more sustainable agriculture in the future. Proposals include interdisciplinary innovations, whole food chain improvement and regional solutions. The implementation of AGD in China will provide important implications for the countries in developmental transition, and contribute to global sustainable development.
Following its 40-year reform and ‘Open Door’ policy, China has recently proposed a new approach to green development and rural revitalization—the idea of Agriculture Green Development (AGD), with the key feature of creating a green eco-environment. In this mini-review we introduce the definition, theory, framework and major components of a green eco-environment as a key part of the AGD. We define a green eco-environment as including four key elements or measures: (1) a green eco-environmental indicator system; (2) environmental monitoring and warning networks; (3) emission standards and environmental thresholds for key pollutants; (4) emission controls and pollution remediation technologies. We have used Quzhou County (a typical county in the center of the North China Plain) as an example to show how detailed air, water and soil monitoring networks, as well as improved farmer practices and pollution control measures (especially ammonia emission mitigation and PM pollution reduction), can begin to create a green eco-environment in China and that AGD is possible. We conclude by stressing the need to improve the framework and practice for a green eco-environment, especially the importance of linking proposals and practices for a green eco-environment with the United Nations high priority Sustainable Development Goals.
Food security is not only an economic issue, but also an important social issue. To ensure national food security, China has to study and evaluate correctly changes in supply and demand in the future; carry out the three development requirements of Great Food View, full industry chain and new greening; draw the alerting line for food security standards and resource utilization; differentiate importing categories and the order of priority; set clear development goals and enhance basic support and technical support. Based on the strategic concept of sustainable development of food security in the future, the paper proposes policy suggestions including setting the core strategy of being basically self-sufficient in grain, speeding up the implementation of the major project of building 1 billion mu of high standard farmlands, carrying out creative operation modes and cultivating the new type of agricultural business entities, improving laws and regulations, promoting the development process of modern agriculture, etc.
Food security is important for a country’s prosperity and stability and it is also an important safeguard of steady economy and social development. The study focuses on sustainable development and national food security. Based on the development status of the Chinese food industry, and the problems, development trends, opportunities and challenges of food security, this paper proposes the strategic objectives, strategic ideas, key safeguard measures and policy recommendations to ensure future national food security.
During the period of the 13th Five-Year Plan and even in a long period in the future, the demand for husbandry products in China will show a rigid increase. But Chinese husbandry is currently faced with unfavorable situations, such as the serious resources shortage, the increasing environmental constraints, and the intense international competitions that exacerbate their impact on domestic husbandry. Based on the above facts, Chinese husbandry should take the sustainable development strategy for the future. This paper analyzes the development status of Chinese husbandry and challenges for its sustainable development and makes a basic judgment on the sustainable development of Chinese husbandry. Aiming at the 13th Five-Year Plan, the paper develops the strategic objectives, strategic priorities and basic principles that will benefit the sustainable development of Chinese husbandry. Furthermore, in order to provide theoretical support for accelerating the transformation of Chinese husbandry development mode, and realizing the husbandry modernization, it also puts forward some important suggestions on "further making clear the strategic dominance of husbandry in modern agriculture development" and "reasonable use of the international market to protect domestic food security" and "quickly launching and implementing a batch of key husbandry science and technology R&D programs".