In order to achieve the goal of “Beautiful China” and the strategic task of ecological civilization construction, it is objectively required to further strengthen the strategic position of environmental protection. Based on the development trend of global economy, science and technology, as well as China’s economic social development trend, resources and energy demand, environmental protection target in the next 10–15 years, this study deeply analyzes the current situation, predicts the development trend and shows the existing issues in the field of environmental protection, comprehensively understand the characteristics and requirements in the “new period”, and propose the strategic thinking and major initiatives in the national environmental protection focusing on the fields of atmospheric environment, water environment, rural and soil environment, solid waste pollution prevention and control, marine environment, environmental risks and health, international environmental protection in the next ten years, especially during the period of the “13th Five-Year plan”.
With the developing of large scale and deep-water, performance of ocean engineering equipment has been improved rapidly. The offshore manufacturing industry faces with the complex manufacturing process, exacting working conditions, and high accuracy requirements. Manufacturing devices should to be refined, flexible, parallel in processing and measurement, need more breakthroughs in complete sets of equipment, control system and etc. And provide the support for the development of the construction capacity of ocean engineering equipment industry, achieve the fine, intelligent and green development in manufacturing process.
To improve China's development capacity of living marine resources and promote the construction of its maritime power, the Chinese Academy of Engineering launched a major consultation project in 2011, which is called "Strategic Study on the Development of China Living Marine Resources Engineering and Technology". By consultation and investigation in five key areas including mariculture, maritime resources conservation, deep sea fishery, seafood quality safety processing and logistics, marine medicine and bio-product, this study systematically analyzes the current state and strategic demands of these areas. It also advances three development strategies namely conservation, expansion and high-technology, for multi-dimensional developing and utilizing living marine resources. Three strategic objectives and tasks for advancing blue marine bio-industry were proposed, including sustainability, safety and modern engineering. The study recommended that the China should prioritize initiating two key researchand development programs: the Blue Marine Food Development Project and the Key Technology Development Project for Blue Marine Medicine and Bio-product.
The paper examines current state and trends of the marine engineering and technologies around the world and attempts to extrapolate lessons for China’s development efforts. The major characteristics and tendency of the world ocean development come in the form of advanced equipment and technology, which are used as the main force for promoting ocean resource exploitation, ocean energy exploration and extraction as an important industry to the world's countries; living marine resources as a competitive focus, marine pollution management and prevention as the priority issue, and land-sea integration engineering as an important part for marine development. In-depth analysis of the aforementioned characteristics and trends allows us reach a list of important recommendations. Therefore China should strengthen its awareness of national ocean policy issues and enhance ocean development position as part of its the national development strategy; promote science and technology innovation; optimize marine industrial infrastructure and vigorously support emerging marine industries; improve its comprehensive management system and establish a mechanism for the coordinated development; strengthen protection of resources and the environment and keep sustainable exploitation on resource.
In order to promote the construction of maritime power, the Chinese Academy of Engineering launched a major consultation project in 2011, the Study on Development Strategy of China’s Marine Engineering and Technology. This paper puts forward a development strategy and mission through consultation and investigation in six key areas, including ocean exploration, marine transportation, marine energy, living marine resources, marine environment and land-sea interactions, and systematic analysis of the opportunities and strategic requirement for marine engineering and technology development. A policy recommendation of this project was put forward clearly: building a maritime power should be led by science and technology; marine engineering and technology power must be built up first. Furthermore, it is recommended that the national government should intensify the development of marine engineering and technology and accelerate the implementation of two plans: "The Marine Engineering and Technological Innovation Driven Plan" and "The Modern Marine Industry Promotion Plan".
Marine transportation technology is the indispensable element requried for the marine exploration, ocean development, ocean resources management and maintaining China's maritime rights and interests. This paper identifies China's strategic needs for the the development of the marine transportation engineering capabilities and technology. At the same time, it also provides a in-depth analysis of the domestic and international development situation to map out the developmental direction and trends of future marine transportation engineering and technology in terms of the strategic positions, goals, strategic tasks and key areas of development for marine transportation equipment in China. Finally, this paper puts forward some policy measures and advice for the relevant departments of the industry to consider.
This paper summarizes the implications of research on marine environment and ecological engineering development strategy, analyzes the current situation of marine environment and ecology development in China. It also provides a comparative analysis of international experiences in the marine environment and ecological engineering field explains, and the main problems China faces at present. Meanwhile, the strategic goals, main tasks and major recommendations for the development of China's marine environment and ecological engineering improvement are presented in this paper.
Land-sea integration engineering refers to the engineering projects involving overlapping elements of land and sea and play significant roles in the development and operation of these domains, including ports, bridges and tunnels, and land reclamation and others. In recent years, land-sea integration engineering projects have gained momentum and impetus in China and the level of technology utilized in these projects has seen an improvement compared with previous efforts. This study shows that although the land-sea integration engineering has played a significant role in the development of China's coastal regions' economies, but such works are challenged by unbalanced development, poor coordination in planning and execution, weak governance of the environment and safety operations issues. This paper suggests that China should gradually strengthen the development of land-sea integration engineering systems, which covers a broad area from the coasts to the deep seas, using pilot programs that are upgraded progressively to full-scale programs due to their success. Futhermore, China should focus on the land-sea integration engineering in the fields of coastal marine engineering, land-sea communication, marine transportation engineering, island development and protection engineering and coastal disaster prevention and mitigation engineering.
This paper briefly reviews the world's current deep water petroleum exploration and development technology, primary equipment, and a overview of the development situation of huge deep water oil and gas fields all over the world. Meanwhile, this study also reviews the developmental history of Chinese offshore oil exploration and extraction from 34 years ago, which began after the establishment of China National Offshore Oil Corporation. At present, CNOOC has the ability to develop the offshore oil fields within water depth of 300 meters and produce about 50 million tons oil annually. The main deepwater engineering facilities such as HYSY981 Deepwater semi-submersible drilling platform were first built. In 2014, the first deep water gas field Liwan3-1 began production. However, there are more challenges for Chinese offshore oil development efforts such as typhoons in South China Sea, ice in Bohai Bay, high viscosity and pour point, high content of CO2 complex reservoir characteristics, remote flow assurance and control, etc.. The strategic development plan for China’s future offshore energy development is presented in this paper.
It is a critical and long-term strategic goal for China to enhance its capacity to exploit marine resources, develop marine economics, protect the marine ecological environment, uphold maritime rights and interests, and build a maritime power. However, China is still in the preliminary stage of marine exploration; therefore, we need to enhance our ability to utilize and control the ocean from a global perspective. It is urgent that the development and utilization of marine resources—including exploration, engineering exploitation, and environmental protection—and the safeguarding of the rights and interests of the state should be treated as an organic whole in the top-level engineering science and technology designs that are required to build a maritime power. Based on a series of technology foresight analyses that were performed through inter-disciplinary integration, this project puts forward key directions in marine engineering science and technology development. In addition, this paper outlines the development path for China’s marine engineering science and technology in six key aspects, including: marine environment stereo-observation technology and equipment, submarine resources exploration and development technology, marine biological resources exploration and development technology, seawater resources and marine energy comprehensive utilization technology, marine environment security technology, and marine development equipment. This paper presents the scientific and technological vision, key points of development, development strategy, and development path for China's marine engineering science and technology to 2035.