The rapid industrial growth and the necessity of recovering and recycling raw materials increased the interest in the production of highly selective and efficient separation tools. In this perspective, a relevant input was given by the membrane-based technology and the production of imprinted membranes, which possess specific recognition properties at molecular and ionic level, offers the possibility of developing sustainable and green processes. Furthermore, the integration of imprinted membranes with traditional or membrane-based approaches is a promising strategy in the logic of process intensification, which means the combination of different operations in a single apparatus. This work discusses the concept and separation mechanisms of imprinted membranes. Furthermore, it presents an overview of their application in organic solvent nanofiltration, for the removal of toxic agents and recovery solvent, as well as valuable compounds. The recent advances in water treatment, such as pesticide removal and recovery of metal ions, are also discussed. Finally, potential applications of imprinted membranes in hybrid processes are highlighted, and a look into the future of membrane separations for water treatment and recovery of critical raw materials is offered.