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Abstract Comprehensive mitigation of gas emissions from swine manure was investigated. Additives addition for mitigation of gas from the manure has been developed. Sargassum horneri, seaweed masking strategy controlled gas by 90%-100%. Immediate reduction in emitted gas and improving air quality has been determined. Microbial consortium with seaweed completely controlled gas emissions by 100%. Gas emissions from swine farms have an impact on air quality in the Republic of Korea. Swine manure stored in deep pits for a long time is a major source of harmful gas emissions. Therefore, we evaluated the mitigation of emissions of ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and amine gases from swine manure with biological products such as seaweed (Sargassum horneri) and a microbial consortium (Bacillus subtilis (1.2 × 109 CFU/mL), Thiobacillus sp. (1.0 × 1010 CFU/mL) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2.0 × 109 CFU/mL)) used as additives due to their promising benefits for nutrient cycling. Overall, seaweed powder masking over two days provided notable control of over 98%-100% of the gas emissions. Furthermore, significant control of gas emissions was especially pronounced when seaweed powder masking along with a microbial consortium was applied, resulting in a gas reduction rate of 100% for NH3, amines and H2S over 10 days of treatment. The results also suggested that seaweed powder masking and a microbial consortium used in combination to reduce the gas emissions from swine manure reduced odour compared with that observed when the two additives were used alone. Without the consortium, seaweed decreased total volatile fatty acid (VFA) production. The proposed novel method of masking with a microbial consortium is promising for mitigating hazardous gases, simple, and environmentally beneficial. More research is warranted to determine the mechanisms underlying the seaweed and substrate interactions.

Abstract Penetration depth and substrate characters affect AGS formation and performance. The relationship between substrate gradient and particle size affects AGS stability. The fermentation process is proposed as a pretreatment to improve AGS stability. The influences of flow patterns (mixed-flow and plug-flow) and fermentation pretreatment on aerobic granular sludge (AGS) formation with various substrate availability levels were investigated by running four identical laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (R1–R4), comparing two anaerobic feeding strategies and three kinds of substrates. R1 achieved faster granulation with a fast influent fill step followed by a modified anaerobic mixed-flow phase, but the AGS showed poorer stability with a cracked structure and a high suspended solids concentration in the effluent. The anaerobic plug-flow feeding mode (with influent fed slowly from the bottom) in R2 provided deeper penetration depth for the substance to reach the core of AGS and accordingly strengthen AGS stability. An acidogenic up-flow sludge bed reactor was introduced as a pretreatment to improve the AGS performance by enhancing glucose pre-fermentation (R4). AGS fed with mixed volatile fatty acids (VFA) after glucose fermentation showed similar performance compared with the reactor fed with acetate in the aspects of stability, structure, size distribution and nitrogen removal efficiency, and 74% similarity in the microbial community. For actual wastewater with low VFA concentrations, fermentation treatment was suggested as a promising pretreatment for stable AGS granulation and operation.

Quan Yuan ,   Hui Gong   et al.
Abstract • Orange tree residuals biochar had a better ability to adsorb ammonia. • Modified tea tree residuals biochar had a stronger ability to remove phosphorus. • Partially-modified biochar could remove ammonia and phosphorus at the same time. • The real runoff experiment showed an ammonia nitrogen removal rate of about 80%. • The removal rate of total phosphorus in real runoff experiment was about 95%. Adsorption of biochars (BC) produced from cash crop residuals is an economical and practical technology for removing nutrients from agricultural runoff. In this study, BC made of orange tree trunks and tea tree twigs from the Laoguanhe Basin were produced and modified by aluminum chloride (Al-modified) and ferric sulfate solutions (Fe-modified) under various pyrolysis temperatures (200°C–600°C) and residence times (2–5 h). All produced and modified BC were further analyzed for their abilities to adsorb ammonia and phosphorus with initial concentrations of 10–40 mg/L and 4–12 mg/L, respectively. Fe-modified Tea Tree BC 2h/400°C showed the highest phosphorus adsorption capacity of 0.56 mg/g. Al-modified Orange Tree BC 3h/500°C showed the best performance for ammonia removal with an adsorption capacity of 1.72 mg/g. FTIR characterization showed that P = O bonds were formed after the adsorption of phosphorus by modified BC, N-H bonds were formed after ammonia adsorption. XPS analysis revealed that the key process of ammonia adsorption was the ion exchange between K+ and NH4+. Phosphorus adsorption was related to oxidation and interaction between PO43– and Fe3+. According to XRD results, ammonia was found in the form of potassium amide, while phosphorus was found in the form of iron hydrogen phosphates. The sorption isotherms showed that the Freundlich equation fits better for phosphorus adsorption, while the Langmuir equation fits better for ammonia adsorption. The simulated runoff infiltration experiment showed that 97.3% of ammonia was removed by Al-modified Orange tree BC 3h/500°C, and 92.9% of phosphorus was removed by Fe-modified Tea tree BC 2h/400°C.

Abstract A model-free sewer-WWTP integrated control was proposed. A dynamic discrete control based on the water level was developed. The approach could improve the sewer operation against flow fluctuation. The approach could increase transport capacity and enhance pump efficiency. This study aims to propose a multi-point integrated real-time control method based on discrete dynamic water level variations, which can be realized only based on the programmable logic controller (PLC) system without using a complex mathematical model. A discretized water level control model was developed to conduct the real-time control based on data-automation. It combines the upstream pumping stations and the downstream influent pumping systems of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The discretized water level control method can regulate dynamic wastewater pumping flow of pumps following the dynamic water level variation in the sewer system. This control method has been successfully applied in practical integrated operations of sewer-WWTP following the sensitive flow disturbances of the sewer system. The operational results showed that the control method could provide a more stabilized regulate pumping flow for treatment process; it can also reduce the occurrence risk of combined sewer overflow (CSO) during heavy rainfall events by increasing transport capacity of pumping station and influent flow in WWTP, which takes full advantage of storage space in the sewer system.

Zhengsheng Lu ,   Moran Wang   et al.

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