Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers has realized the clean and efficient utilization of inferior coal like gangue and coal slime, high sulfur coal, anthracite, petroleum coke, oil shale and other resources. As a country with the largest amount of CFB boilers and the largest installed capacity in the world, China has 440 100–600 MW CFB boilers with a total capacity of 82.29 GW , including 227 units of 135 MW , 95 units of 300 MW , and 24 supercritical units. The statistics of typical 100–300 MW CFB boilers showed that the average number of unplanned shut-down was only 0.37 times per year, among which the 135 MW was 0.26 times per year and 300 MW was 0.46 times per year. The auxiliary power ratio of some 300 MW CFB boilers based on flow-pattern reconstruction can be reduced to about 4%, which is closed to the same level of pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This paper summarizes the development process and application status of China’s large-scale CFB boilers, analyzes the characteristics and technical performance of the iconic units, and introduces solutions to the problems such as water wall wear and bottom ash cooling.

Zhong HUANG ,   Lei DENG   et al.
To improve the overall efficiency of the energy system, the basic structure for the energy internet of coordination and optimization of “generation-grid-load-storage” of Huangpu District, Guangzhou, China is designed, while the arrangement for the output of centralized and distributed energy module and energy storage are proposed. Taking economic benefit maximization, environmental benefit maximization and energy efficiency maximization as sub-objectives, the mathematical model of multi-objective optimal allocation and operation strategy of the energy internet is established considering supply-demand balance constraints, equipment characteristic constraints, operation mode constraints, and energy conditions constraints. The calculation results show that without considering the outsourced electricity, the balanced strategy, the economic development strategy, the environmental protection strategy, and the energy efficiency strategy are obtained by calculation, which are all superior to the traditional energy supply strategy. Moreover, considering the outsourced electricity, the proportion of outsourced electricity to total electricity is 19.8%, which is the system optimization of the energy internet under certain power demand. Compared with other strategies without outsourced electricity, the outsourced electricity strategy can have a certain emission reduction effect, but at the same time reduce the economic benefit. Furthermore, the huge difference in demand for thermal and cooling load between industrial and commercial areas results in the installed capacity of gas distributed energy stations in industrial areas being nearly twice as large as that in commercial areas. The distributed photovoltaic power generation is allocated according to the proportion of the installed roof areas of photovoltaic power generation system in residential, industrial, and commercial areas.

Pei LI ,   Guotian CAI   et al.
This paper investigates the scheduling strategy of schedulable load in home energy management system (HEMS) under uncertain environment by proposing a distributionally robust optimization (DRO) method based on receding horizon optimization (RHO-DRO). First, the optimization model of HEMS, which contains uncertain variable outdoor temperature and hot water demand, is established and the scheduling problem is developed into a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) by using the DRO method based on the ambiguity sets of the probability distribution of uncertain variables. Combined with RHO, the MILP is solved in a rolling fashion using the latest update data related to uncertain variables. The simulation results demonstrate that the scheduling results are robust under uncertain environment while satisfying all operating constraints with little violation of user thermal comfort. Furthermore, compared with the robust optimization (RO) method, the RHO-DRO method proposed in this paper has a lower conservation and can save more electricity for users.

Jidong WANG ,   Boyu CHEN   et al.
Industrial-scale experiments were conducted to study the effects of tertiary air declination angle (TDA) on the coal combustion and steam temperature characteristics in the first 350-MW supercritical down-fired boiler in China with the multiple-injection and multiple-staging combustion (MIMSC) technology at medium and high loads. The experimental results indicated that as the TDA increased from 0° to 15°, the overall gas temperature in the lower furnace rose and the symmetry of temperature field was enhanced. The ignition distance of the fuel-rich coal/air flow decreased. In near-burner region, the concentration of O decreased while the concentrations of CO and NO increased. The concentration of NO decreased in near-tertiary-air region. The carbon in fly ash decreased significantly from 8.40% to 6.45% at a load of 260 MW. At a TDA of 15°, the ignition distances were the shortest (2.07 m and 1.73 m) at a load of 210 MW and 260 MW, respectively. The main and reheat steam temperatures were the highest (557.2°C and 559.4°C at a load of 210 MW, 558.4°C and 560.3°C at a load of 260 MW). The carbon in fly ash was the lowest (4.83%) at a load of 210 MW. On changing the TDA from 15° to 25°, the flame kernel was found to move downward and the main and reheat steam temperatures dropped obviously. The change of TDA has little effect on NO emissions(660–681 mg/m at 6% O ). In comprehensive consideration of the pulverized coal combustion characteristics and the unit economic performance, an optimal TDA of 15° is recommended.

Xiaoguang LI ,   Lingyan ZENG   et al.

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