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During the past years, a number of concepts have been proposed, such as cloud manufacturing, Industry 4.0, and Industrial Internet. One of their common aims is to optimize the collaborative resource configuration across enterprises by establishing s that aggregate distributed resources. In all of these concepts, a complete manufacturing system consists of distributed physical manufacturing systems and a containing the virtual manufacturing systems mapped from the physical ones. We call such manufacturing systems -based systems (PSMSs). A PSMS can therefore be regarded as a huge cyber-physical system with the cyber part being the and the physical part being the corresponding physical manufacturing system. A significant issue for a PSMS is how to optimally schedule the aggregated resources. technology provides an effective approach for solving this issue. In this paper we propose a architecture for in PSMSs, which consists of a -level system (MAS) and an enterprise- level MAS. Procedures, characteristics, and requirements of in PSMSs are presented. A model for in a PSMS based on the architecture is proposed. A case study is conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed architecture and model.

We address a special kind of systems that are also real-time. We call them real-time IoT (RT- IoT) systems. An RT-IoT system needs to meet timing constraints of system delay, clock synchronization, deadline, and so on. The timing constraints turn to be more stringent as we get closer to the physical things. Based on the reference architecture of IoT (ISO/IEC 30141), the RT-IoT is established. The idea of edge subsystem is introduced. The sensing & controlling domain is the basis of the edge subsystem, and the edge subsystem usually must meet the hard real-time constraints. The model includes four perspectives, the time , computation , communication , and control . Each looks, from a different angle, at how the time parameters impact an RT-IoT system.

Bo Yuan ,   De-ji Chen   et al.
(OFDM) has been adopted as standard beginning with the 4 generation mobile communication system because of its high-bit-rate transmission capability under frequency selective fading channel conditions. However, a major disadvantage of OFDM is the non-constant envelope signal with a high (PAPR). The high peak signal in OFDM is distorted through a nonlinear amplifier, which causes bit error ratio (BER) reduction. Many techniques have been developed for reducing PAPR at the cost of inefficient bandwidth usage or throughput because of the additional information about PAPR reduction. We propose a novel method, in which the high peak signal above the threshold of the nonlinear amplification region is nonlinearly downscaled to lower the PAPR. The time slot location and scaling ratio for where and how the high peak baseband OFDM signal is downscaled are transmitted using (FM) combined with OFDM, which requires less additional bandwidth than the previously proposed methods. Simulation results show that the proposed novel method provides a lower PAPR and elicits a better BER performance compared with other conventional methods, because it reduces the PAPR by and restores the pre-distorted signal using FM.

Yi-hu Xu ,   Jung-Yeol Oh   et al.
based on cryptography is a new paradigm in the field of nanotechnology. The overall performance of QCA is high compared to traditional complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. To achieve data security during nanocommunication, a cryptography-based application is proposed. The devised circuit encrypts the input data and passes it to an output channel through a cum data path selector, where the data is decrypted back to its original form. The results along with theoretical implication prove the accuracy of the circuit. Power dissipation and circuit complexity of the circuit have been analyzed.

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