A number of developed countries are rapidly turning into super-aged societies. Consequently, the demand for reduced surgical invasiveness and enhanced efficiency in the medical field has increased due to the need to reduce the physical burden on older patients and shorten their recovery period. Intelligent surgical robot systems offer high precision, high safety, and reduced invasiveness. This paper presents a review of current intelligent surgical robot systems. The history of robots and three types of intelligent surgical robots are discussed. The problems with current surgical robot systems are then analyzed. Several aspects that should be considered in designing new surgical systems are discussed in detail. The paper ends with a summary of the work and a discussion of future prospects for surgical robot development.

The rationale for the antibiotic treatment of viral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults was analyzed to develop a clinical reference standard for this condition. Clinical data from 166 patients diagnosed with viral pneumonia across 14 hospitals in Beijing from November 2010 to December 2017 were collected. The indications for medications were evaluated, and the rationale for the use of antibiotics was analyzed. A total of 163 (98.3%) patients with viral pneumonia were treated with antibiotics. A combination of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) was used as markers to analyze the possible indications for antibiotic use. With threshold levels set at 0.25 µg/L for PCT and 20 mg/L for CRP, the rate of unreasonable use of antibiotics was 55.2%. By contrast, at a CRP level threshold of 60 mg/L, the rate of antibiotic misuse was 77.3%. A total of 39 of the 163 (23.9%) patients did not meet the guidelines for drug selection for viral CAP in adults. The unreasonable use of antibacterial drugs for the treatment of viral CAP in adults is a serious concern. Clinicians must reduce the unnecessary use of antibiotics.

Rongmeng Jiang ,   Bing Han   et al.
Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive drugs has emerged as a promising strategy in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Improved survival rate was reported in lymphoid malignancies following PT-Cy strategy compared with myeloid disease in non-myeloablative bone marrow transplant setting. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of PT-Cy combined with cyclosporine as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis after myeloablative conditioning and T cell-replete peripheral stem cell transplantation in lymphoid malignancies. This single-arm phase II clinical trial (NCT01435447) involving 31 adult patients was conducted from January 2013 to June 2018. The donor-type neutrophil engraftment rate was 100%, and the overall incidence of grade II to IV and grade III to IV acute GVHD was 39% and 24%, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of chronic GVHD (35%), including moderate to severe forms (10%), were reduced compared with those of the historical group ( =0.03 and =0.04, respectively). With a median follow-up of 18 months, the estimated 2-year overall and event-free survival was 64.8% (95% confidence interval: 47.8%–86.7%) and 58.4% (95% CI: 41.9%–81.7%), respectively. The 2-year cumulative incidence rate of relapse was 19.5% (95% CI: 9.0%–35.8%), whereas the non-relapse mortality rate was 21.8% (95% CI: 11.3%–38.1%). These results demonstrated the feasibility of PT-Cy as GVHD prophylaxis in this clinical setting. This strategy could significantly reduce the incidence of chronic GVHD and its moderate to severe forms but not of acute GVHD and results in similar survival outcomes compared with the historical group. A prospective study with additional patients is warranted to confirm the role of PT-Cy in lymphoid malignancy.

Ling Wang ,   Lining Wang   et al.
Recent studies have shown that acute blood glucose elevation in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) suggests a poor prognosis. To investigate the effect of fasting blood glucose (FBG) on the risk of heart failure (HF) and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) in non-diabetic patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute STEMI, we retrospectively recruited consecutive non-diabetic patients who underwent primary PCI for STEMI in our hospital from February 2003 to March 2015. The patients were divided into two groups according to the FBG level. A total of 623 patients were recruited with an age of 61.3±12.9 years, of whom 514 (82.5%) were male. The HF risk (odds ratio 3.401, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.144–5.395, <0.001) was significantly increased in patients with elevated FBG than those with normal FBG. Elevated FBG was also independently related to LVSD (β 1.513, 95%CI 1.282–1.785, <0.001) in a multiple logistics regression analysis. In conclusion, elevated FBG was independently associated with 30-day HF and LVSD risk in non-diabetic patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI.

Hui Wang ,   Yang Zhang   et al.

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