Frontiers in Energy
Pragmatic multi-stage simulated annealing for optimal placement of synchrophasor measurement units in smart power grids
1. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015, India.2. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, MVGR College of Engineering Vizianagaram, Andhra Pradesh 535005, India
Conventional power grids across the globe are reforming to smart power grids with cutting edge technologies in real time monitoring and control methods. Advanced real time monitoring is facilitated by incorporating synchrophasor measurement units such as phasor measurement units (PMUs) to the power grid monitoring system. Several physical and economic constraints limit the deployment of PMUs in smart power grids. This paper proposes a pragmatic multi-stage simulated annealing (PMSSA) methodology for finding the optimal locations in the smart power grid for installing PMUs in conjunction with existing conventional measurement units (CMUs) to achieve a complete observability of the grid. The proposed PMSSA is much faster than the conventional simulated annealing (SA) approach as it utilizes controlled uphill and downhill movements during various stages of optimization. Moreover, the method of integrating practical phasor measurement unit (PMU) placement conditions like PMU channel limits and redundant placement can be easily handled. The efficacy of the proposed methodology has been validated through simulation studies in IEEE standard bus systems and practical regional Indian power grids.