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Review  |  2020-03-26

High Sn-2 Docosahexaenoic Acid Lipids for Brain Benefits, and Their Enzymatic Syntheses: A Review

The normal development and maintenance of central neural functions are highly correlated with the
amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; x-3 fatty acid) accumulated in the brain. DHA incorporated at
the sn-2 position of lipids is well absorbed by intestinal mucosa and utilized efficiently in vivo.
However, modern consumers have a reduced direct intake of DHA and increased intake of saturated fats
or x-6 fatty acid oils, resulting in behavioral and neurophysiological deficits. To provide an understanding
of the integrated beneficial effects of DHA on the human brain, this review introduces the positional
difference (sn-2 and sn-1,3 positions) of DHA on a glycerol skeleton in natural fats and oils, and further
discusses the possible functional mechanism regarding DHA supplementation and the gut-brain axis. The
multiple bidirectional routes in this axis offer a novel insight into the interaction between DHA supplementation,
the gut microbiota, and brain health. To achieve high sn-2 DHA in diets, it is suggested that sn-
2 DHA lipids be enzymatically produced in more efficient and economical ways by improving the specific
activities of lipases and optimizing the purification procedures. These types of diets will benefit individuals
with strong needs for sn-2 x-3 lipids such as infants, children, and pregnant and lactating women.

Jun Jin

Review  |  2020-03-26

Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Sn-2 Palmitate: A Review

Human milk fat (HMF) is an important source of nutrients and energy for infants. Triacylglycerols (TAGs)
account for about 98% of HMF and have a unique molecular structure. HMF is highly enriched in palmitic
acid (PA) at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone (more than 70%) and in unsaturated fatty acids at
the sn-1,3 position. The specific TAG structure in HMF plays a valuable function in infant growth. Sn-2
palmitate (mainly 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoyl-glycerol) is one of the structured TAGs that is commonly supplemented
into infant formula in order to enable it to present a similar structure to HMF. In this review,
the development of the lipase-catalyzed synthesis of sn-2 palmitate over the last 25 years are summarized,
with a focus on reaction schemes in a laboratory setting. Particular attention is also paid to the
commercialized sn-1,3 regioselective lipases that are used in structured TAGs synthesis, to general methods
of TAG analysis, and to successfully developed sn-2 palmitate products on the market. Prospects for
the lipase-catalyzed synthesis of sn-2 palmitate are discussed.

Wei Wei

Article  |  2020-03-27

Future Modes of Fuel Bioethanol Industry

The fuel bioethanol industry is one of the strategic emerging industries that China focuses on cultivating and developing. Against the background of the country’s deep integration of industrialization and informatization, intelligent and safety production, which can be realized relying on China’s advantages in the Industrial Internet and 5G technology and supported by new technologies such as big data, digital twins, and blockchain, can promote the high-quality development of the fuel bioethanol industry in China. This paper summarizes and analyzes the status and problems of the fuel bioethanol industry, and proposes the general idea for future modes in intelligent production, safety production, and industrial management of the fuel bioethanol industry. The development of the fuel bioethanol industry should be guided at the national strategic level and requires cooperation among the state, local governments, and enterprises, thus to promote the characteristic, joint, and intelligent development of bioethanol industrial bases. The cooperation between industry, universities, and research institutions should be strengthened to innovate production modes and technologies and to promote international competitiveness. Furthermore, key technologies should be developed to realize the production of fuel bioethanol using cellulose-based biomass as the raw material, thereby providing strategic reserves for ensuring national food security.

Wang Meng

Article  |  2020-03-27

A Macro-Study on the Development of China’s Strategic Emerging Industries in the New Era

The status of strategic emerging industries in China’s modern industrial system and their contribution to high-quality economic development are becoming increasingly significant. In face of complex domestic and international environments and the situation that China is about to enter the 14th Five-Year Plan period, it is urgently necessary to make macro thinking of China’s strategic emerging industries and study their strategic positioning. The paper carefully analyzes the development situation of emerging industries in developed countries; examines the achievements, challenges, and problems of emerging industries in China; demonstrates the urgent needs and importance of accelerating the development of relevant industries in China; and outlines a general idea about the development in China. China should regard the cultivation and development of strategic emerging industries as an important pillar in the national modern industrial system; ensure the identification, classification, and strategic deployment of the weaknesses in technologies in the industries; and scientifically plan the regional layout of strategic emerging industries, thus to cultivate industrial clusters at the national level. Conclusively the paper suggests that China should include strategic emerging industries in the national 14th Five-Year Plan; issue a special plan for their development; and explore a national integrated system and a talent cultivation and sharing mechanism.

Liu Xiaolong

Article  |  2020-03-27

Development Status and Prospects of Digital Creative Technology in China

As one of the strategic emerging industries identified in the 13th Five-Year Plan of China, digital creative industry lives in the digital and networked era; it focuses on culture, content, and copyright, and drives the development of surrounding industries through integration and penetration. The key to developing the digital creative industry is digital creative technology and creative design, where, however, China has weaknesses and does not have a clear development path. In this paper, by analyzing industry data, we systematically describe the current development status of digital creative technology in China, including enabling technology, application technology, and end-user device technology, and summarize the problems and weaknesses of China in ultra-high definition (UHD) video, 3D audio, virtual/augmented reality, and software for digital content generation and creative design. Our investigation suggests that it will promote the development of China’s digital creative technology by: (1) establishing national science and technology key projects and national engineering research centers on digital creative technology, (2) improving the quality of talents on digital creative technology, and (3) actively participating international cooperation and increasing the influence of Chinese culture.

Deng Lei

Article  |  2020-03-27

Base editing in pigs for precision breeding

Pigs are one of the most important domesticated animals and have great value in agriculture and biomedicine. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are a dominant type of genetic variation among individual pigs and contribute to the formation of traits. Precision single base substitution provides a strategy for accurate genetic improvement in pig production with the characterization of functional SNPs and genetic variants in pigs. Base editing has recently been developed as the latest gene-editing tool that can directly make changes in single nucleotides without introducing double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs), providing a promising solution for precise genetic modification in large animals. This review summarizes gene-editing developments and highlights recent genetic dissection related to SNPs in major economic traits which may have the potential to be modified using SNP-editing applications. In addition, limitations and future directions of base editing in pig breeding are discussed.

Ruigao SONG