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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering doi: 10.1007/s11709-024-1080-4

Geometric quality evaluation of three-dimensional printable concrete using computational fluid dynamics

Received: 2023-06-04 Accepted: 2024-07-03 Available online: 2024-07-03

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The importance of geometrical control of three dimensional (3D) printable concrete without the support of formwork is widely acknowledged. In this study, a numerical model based on computational fluid dynamics was developed to evaluate the geometrical quality of a 3D printed layer. The numerical results were compared, using image analysis, with physical cross-sectional sawn samples. The influence of printing parameters (printing speed, nozzle height, and nozzle diameter) and the rheological behavior of printed materials (yield stress), on the geometrical quality of one printed layer was investigated. In addition, the yield zone of the printed layer was analyzed, giving insights on the critical factors for geometrical control in 3D concrete printing. Results indicated that the developed model can precisely describe the extrusion process, as well as the cross-sectional quality.

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