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Frontiers of Medicine >> 2013, Volume 7, Issue 3 doi: 10.1007/s11684-013-0283-1

Adiponectin: mechanisms and new therapeutic approaches for restoring diabetic heart sensitivity to ischemic post-conditioning

1. Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China;

2. Department of Anesthesiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China

Available online: 2013-09-05

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Systemic inflammatory response following myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) to a specific organ may cause injuries. Ischemic post-conditioning (IPostC) has emerged as a promising method for myocardial protection against IRI both in experimental and in clinical settings. Enhancement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) is one of the major mechanisms by which IPostC confers cardioprotection. However, the sensitivity of the diabetic heart to IPostC is impaired and the underlying mechanism is unknown. Adiponectin (APN) is an adipocyte-derived plasma protein with anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. Plasma levels of APN are decreased in obese subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes. APN supplementation has been shown to increase NO production and attenuate myocardial IRI in normal (non-diabetic) animals. However, the effect of APN on myocardial injury in diabetic subjects, especially its potential in restoring the sensitivity of the diabetic heart to IPostC has not been investigated. In the current paper, we discussed the possible reasons why the myocardium of diabetic subjects loses sensitivity to IPostC and also highlighted the potential effectiveness and mechanism of APN in restoring IPostC cardioprotection in diabetes. This review proposes to conduct studies that may facilitate the development of novel and optimal therapies to enhance cardioprotection in patients with severe diseases such as diabetes.

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