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Why does environmental compliance cost more than penalty?—A legal analysis on environmental acts of enterprises in China

DONG Hongwei

Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering 2007, Volume 1, Issue 4,   Pages 434-442 doi: 10.1007/s11783-007-0069-2

Abstract: In the environmental protection field of China, due to lower law-breaking cost but higher law-abidingcost , it is a common case that the enterprise chooses to break through the law on purpose.

Keywords: law-abiding     punishment     environmental protection     law-breaking     enterprise    

Environmental deterioration of farmlands caused by the irrational use of agricultural technologies

Xubin Pan,Zhongkui Luo,Yongbo Liu

Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering 2016, Volume 10, Issue 4, doi: 10.1007/s11783-016-0865-7

Abstract: use of agricultural technologies could bring only short-term economic benefits but leave long-term environmental

Keywords: agricultural film     groundwater exploitation     food security     environmental cost    

TRANSFORMATION OF AGRICULTURE ON THE LOESS PLATEAU OF CHINA TOWARD GREEN DEVELOPMENT

Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4,   Pages 491-500 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021428

Abstract:

Loess Plateau of China is a typical dryland agricultural area. Agriculture there has transformed from food shortage toward green development over the past seven decades, and has achieved world-renowned achievements. During 1950–1980, the population increased from 42 to 77 million, increasing grain production to meet food demand of rapid population growth was the greatest challenge. Engineering measures such as terracing and check-dam were the crucial strategies to increase crop production. From 1981 to 2000, most of agronomic measures played a key role in increasing crops yield, and a series of policy support has benefited millions of smallholders. As expected, these measures and policies greatly increased crop production and basically achieved food security; but, low per capita GDP (only about 620 USD in 2000) was still a big challenge. During 2001–2015, the increase in agricultural and non-agricultural income together supported the increase in farmer income to 5781 USD·yr–1. Intensive agriculture that relies heavily on chemicals increased crop productivity by 56%. Steadfast policy support such as “Grain for Green Program” had an overwhelming advantage in protecting the natural ecological environment. In the new era, the integration of science and technology innovations, policy support and positive societal factors will be the golden key to further improve food production, protect environment, and increase smallholder income. 

 

Keywords: agronomic technologies     economic returns     education     environmental cost     food production     government    

Application of ecosystem health cost-effect analysis in eco-planning in Guangzhou City, China

GUO Xiurui, MAO Xianqiang, YANG Jurong, YANG Zhifeng

Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering 2007, Volume 1, Issue 3,   Pages 299-304 doi: 10.1007/s11783-007-0050-0

Abstract: Then, to evaluate the validity of planning measures, a cost-effect analysis of the different scenarioson eco-planning was made, taking investment of the planned projects as the cost and ecosystem healthor countermeasures, variation of the ecosystem health state was evaluated when the investment of eco-environmentalstate can be worked out, providing a reference for prioritizing the implementation of such urban eco-environmental

Keywords: ±10 %     decision support     influence     eco-environmental construction     planning    

Cost-benefit analysis of China’s national air pollution control plan

Jing ZHANG, Hongqiang JIANG, Wei ZHANG, Guoxia MA, Yanchao WANG, Yaling LU, Xi HU, Jia ZHOU, Fei PENG, Jun BI, Jinnan WANG

Frontiers of Engineering Management 2019, Volume 6, Issue 4,   Pages 524-537 doi: 10.1007/s42524-019-0074-8

Abstract: In this study, an analytical framework for a cost-benefit analysis applicable to China was constructedResults show that the total cost of implementation of the “Air Plan” is 1.6511 trillion RMB.ratio, where the benefit was 5.5 times the cost, was the highest in Fujian.Estimations in this study can serve as a reference for China in formulating similar environmental policiesanalysis of China’s environmental policies.

Keywords: Air Plan     cost-benefit analysis     health benefits     environmental policy    

Comparative cost analysis of three different anesthesia methods in gynecological laparoscopic surgery

Xiaohui Chi, Yeling Chen, Mingfeng Liao, Fei Cao, Yuke Tian, Xueren Wang

Frontiers of Medicine 2012, Volume 6, Issue 3,   Pages 311-316 doi: 10.1007/s11684-012-0205-7

Abstract:

In the current study, we assessed and evaluated the costs and benefits of three popular methods of general anesthesia practiced in our department for gynecological laparoscopic surgery in recent years. Sixty adult female patients who underwent elective gynecological laparoscopic surgery under general anesthesia were randomly divided into three groups: group V, group I and group C. In group V, anesthesia was induced intravenously with midazolam, remifentanil, propofol and vecuronium, and maintained with continuous infusion of propofol and remifentanil. In group I, anesthesia was intravenously induced with midazolam, fentanyl, propofol and vecuronium, and maintained with inhaled isoflurane and intravenous bonus of fentanyl. In group C, anesthesia was induced as in group I, but maintained with isoflurane inhalation combined with propofol-remifentanil infusion. All patients received vecuronium for muscle relaxation. Perioperative incidences of complications and total anesthesia costs for patients in all groups were recorded. In addition, postoperative satisfaction of the patients was also noted, and similar outcomes of the satisfaction were reported in all 60 patients. Although there was no statistical significance among groups, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting were higher in group C, and the rates of shivering and the needs for analgesics were higher in group V. Anesthesia costs in group I were the lowest. Therefore, it is concluded that the costs of anesthesia induced with midazolam, fentanyl, propofol, vecuronium, and maintained with isoflurane, fentanyl and vecuronium are cheapest, and there is no significant difference in patients’ satisfaction and safety among the three above-mentioned methods of anesthesia in our department.

Keywords: general anesthesia     economics     cost    

Life-cycle cost analysis of optimal timing of pavement preservation

Zilong WANG,Hao WANG

Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering 2017, Volume 11, Issue 1,   Pages 17-26 doi: 10.1007/s11709-016-0369-3

Abstract: This study developed an integrated life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) model to quantify the impact of pavementpreservation on agency cost and vehicle operation cost (VOC) and analyzed the optimal timing of preservationtraffic loading and the initial IRI value significantly affects life extension and the benefit of agency costThe benefit in VOC is one to two orders greater in magnitude as compared to the benefit in agency costtiming calculated based on VOC is always earlier than the optimal timing calculated based on agency cost

Keywords: pavement preservation     life-cycle cost analysis     agency cost     vehicle operation cost    

Environmental, social, and economic assessment of energy utilization of crop residue in China

Yueling ZHANG, Junjie LI, Huan LIU, Guangling ZHAO, Yajun TIAN, Kechang XIE

Frontiers in Energy 2021, Volume 15, Issue 2,   Pages 308-319 doi: 10.1007/s11708-020-0696-x

Abstract: This paper aims to discuss an environmental, social, and economic analysis of energy utilization of cropThe methodologies employed to achieve this objective are environmental life cycle assessment (E-LCA),life cycle cost (LCC), and social life cycle assessment (S-LCA).The investment capital cost and salary cost are collected and compared in the life cycle of the scenarios

Keywords: crop residue     life cycle assessment     life cycle cost     social life cycle assessment     energy production    

Floating production storage and offloading systems’ cost and motion performance: A systems thinking application

Rini NISHANTH, Andrew WHYTE, V. John KURIAN

Frontiers of Engineering Management 2018, Volume 5, Issue 3,   Pages 357-368 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2018022

Abstract: thinking gives a unique opportunity to seek a balance between FPSO technical performance(s), with whole-costfit-for-use design specification options’ that address technical-motion(s), with respective life-cycle costperiods-of-time by diagnosing the problem-at-hand; namely, assessing the antecedents of life-cycle costbeen performed to generate FPSO motion in six degrees of freedom using SESAM DeepC, while life-cycle costLCCA data has been generated to compare the cost of such different mooring options/hull conditions over

Keywords: FPSO     LCCA     spread/turret-mooring     DeepC     cost     motion     soft-systems    

Manufacturing cost constrained topology optimization for additive manufacturing

Jikai LIU, Qian CHEN, Xuan LIANG, Albert C. TO

Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering 2019, Volume 14, Issue 2,   Pages 213-221 doi: 10.1007/s11465-019-0536-z

Abstract: This paper presents a manufacturing cost constrained topology optimization algorithm considering theHowever, metal additive manufacturing is an expensive process, and the high manufacturing cost severely, the proposed algorithm in this research would provide an opportunity to balance the manufacturing costTechnically, the additive manufacturing cost model for laser powder bed-based process is establishedThen, this cost model is transformed into a level set function-based expression, which is integrated

Keywords: topology optimization     manufacturing cost     additive manufacturing     powder bed    

Low-cost adsorbents for urban stormwater pollution control

Yang Deng

Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering 2020, Volume 14, Issue 5, doi: 10.1007/s11783-020-1262-9

Abstract: Abstract • Various low-cost adsorbents are studied for capturing urban stormwater pollutants. • AdsorbentsTo improve the treatment efficacy of stormwater infrastructure, low-cost adsorbents have increasinglyThis article aims to briefly discuss several key aspects and principles for utilization of low-cost adsorbentsTo determine whether a low-cost adsorbent is suitable for stormwater treatment, two aspects should beThe aforementioned principles play a key role in the success of urban stormwater treatment with low-cost

Keywords: Urban stormwater     Runoff pollutants     Low-cost adsorbents     Adsorption     Chemical leaching    

Low-cost green building practice in China: Library of Shandong Transportation College

Yingxin ZHU, Borong LIN, Bin YUAN,

Frontiers in Energy 2010, Volume 4, Issue 1,   Pages 100-105 doi: 10.1007/s11708-009-0072-3

Abstract: ranked 1st in the 2nd National Green Buildings Innovation Award in China in March 2007 due to its low costMoreover, a set of measures is utilized for water conversation, material saving, and improvement of indoor environmentalThe total initial cost for the building with the above mentioned integrated technologies was only RMBsquare meter, which was worth spending in China due to the climatic adaptability and the relative low cost

Keywords: green building     low cost technique     energy efficiency     integrated strategy    

Benefit-based cost allocation for residentially distributed photovoltaic systems in China: A cooperative

Xi LUO, Xiaojun LIU, Yanfeng LIU, Jiaping LIU, Yaxing WANG

Frontiers of Engineering Management 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2,   Pages 271-283 doi: 10.1007/s42524-019-0083-7

Abstract: Chinese distributed PV systems has failed to meet expectations because of their irrational profit and costIn this study, the methodology for calculating the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for PV is thoroughlyAn externality-corrected mathematical model based on Shapley value is established to allocate the costpolicies, and the utility grid should be the highly subsidized participant; (iii) the percentage of cost

Keywords: solar photovoltaic     cost allocation     cooperative game theory     Shapley value     mixed-integer linear programming     levelized cost of energy    

Construction Duration and Cost Simulation via Network-Program-Diagram

Wei-dong Wang,Jie Wu,Kai-jun Wang,Xin Wen

Frontiers of Engineering Management 2014, Volume 1, Issue 2,   Pages 210-217 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2014028

Abstract: at the core, the 4D model can incorporate simulation’s resultant data with respect to total time and cost

Keywords: construction duration     construction cost     activity-on-node diagram     building information modeling    

Prediction of cost and emission from Indian coal-fired power plants with CO

Naushita SHARMA, Udayan SINGH, Siba Sankar MAHAPATRA

Frontiers in Energy 2019, Volume 13, Issue 1,   Pages 149-162 doi: 10.1007/s11708-017-0482-6

Abstract: Coal-fired power plants are one of the most important targets with respect to reduction of CO emissions. The reasons for this are that coal-fired power plants offer localized large point sources (LPS) of CO and that the Indian power sector contributes to roughly half of all-India CO emissions. CO capture and storage (CCS) can be implemented in these power plants for long-term decarbonisation of the Indian economy. In this paper, two artificial intelligence (AI) techniques—adaptive network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and multi gene genetic programming (MGGP) are used to model Indian coal-fired power plants with CO capture. The data set of 75 power plants take the plant size, the capture type, the load and the CO emission as the input and the COE and annual CO emissions as the output. It is found that MGGP is more suited to these applications with an value of more than 99% between the predicted and actual values, as against the ~96% correlation for the ANFIS approach. MGGP also gives the traditionally expected results in sensitivity analysis, which ANFIS fails to give. Several other parameters in the base plant and CO capture unit may be included in similar studies to give a more accurate result. This is because MGGP gives a better perspective toward qualitative data, such as capture type, as compared to ANFIS.

Keywords: carbon capture and storage     power plants     artificial intelligence     genetic programming     neuro fuzzy    

Title Author Date Type Operation

Why does environmental compliance cost more than penalty?—A legal analysis on environmental acts of enterprises in China

DONG Hongwei

Journal Article

Environmental deterioration of farmlands caused by the irrational use of agricultural technologies

Xubin Pan,Zhongkui Luo,Yongbo Liu

Journal Article

TRANSFORMATION OF AGRICULTURE ON THE LOESS PLATEAU OF CHINA TOWARD GREEN DEVELOPMENT

Journal Article

Application of ecosystem health cost-effect analysis in eco-planning in Guangzhou City, China

GUO Xiurui, MAO Xianqiang, YANG Jurong, YANG Zhifeng

Journal Article

Cost-benefit analysis of China’s national air pollution control plan

Jing ZHANG, Hongqiang JIANG, Wei ZHANG, Guoxia MA, Yanchao WANG, Yaling LU, Xi HU, Jia ZHOU, Fei PENG, Jun BI, Jinnan WANG

Journal Article

Comparative cost analysis of three different anesthesia methods in gynecological laparoscopic surgery

Xiaohui Chi, Yeling Chen, Mingfeng Liao, Fei Cao, Yuke Tian, Xueren Wang

Journal Article

Life-cycle cost analysis of optimal timing of pavement preservation

Zilong WANG,Hao WANG

Journal Article

Environmental, social, and economic assessment of energy utilization of crop residue in China

Yueling ZHANG, Junjie LI, Huan LIU, Guangling ZHAO, Yajun TIAN, Kechang XIE

Journal Article

Floating production storage and offloading systems’ cost and motion performance: A systems thinking application

Rini NISHANTH, Andrew WHYTE, V. John KURIAN

Journal Article

Manufacturing cost constrained topology optimization for additive manufacturing

Jikai LIU, Qian CHEN, Xuan LIANG, Albert C. TO

Journal Article

Low-cost adsorbents for urban stormwater pollution control

Yang Deng

Journal Article

Low-cost green building practice in China: Library of Shandong Transportation College

Yingxin ZHU, Borong LIN, Bin YUAN,

Journal Article

Benefit-based cost allocation for residentially distributed photovoltaic systems in China: A cooperative

Xi LUO, Xiaojun LIU, Yanfeng LIU, Jiaping LIU, Yaxing WANG

Journal Article

Construction Duration and Cost Simulation via Network-Program-Diagram

Wei-dong Wang,Jie Wu,Kai-jun Wang,Xin Wen

Journal Article

Prediction of cost and emission from Indian coal-fired power plants with CO

Naushita SHARMA, Udayan SINGH, Siba Sankar MAHAPATRA

Journal Article