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An experimental study of a single-piston free piston linear generator

Jin XIAO, Yingdong CHENG, Jinlong WANG, Chengwei ZHU, Zhen HUANG

《能源前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第6期   页码 916-930 doi: 10.1007/s11708-022-0838-4

摘要: Free piston linear generator (FPLG) is a promising range extender for the electrical vehicle with unparallel advantages, such as compact structure, higher system efficiency, and reduced maintenance cost. However, due to the lack of the mechanic crankshaft, the related piston motion control is a challenge for the FPLG which causes problems such as misfire and crash and limits its widespread commercialization. Aimed at resolving the problems as misfire, a single-piston FPLG prototype has been designed and manufactured at Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). In this paper, the development process and experimental validation of the related control strategies were detailed. From the experimental studies, significant misfires were observed at first, while the FPLG operated in natural-aspiration conditions. The root cause of this misfire was then identified as the poor scavenging process, and a compressed air source was leveraged to enhance the related scavenging pressure. Afterward, optimal control parameters, in terms of scavenging pressure, air-fuel equivalence ratio, and ignition position, were then calibrated in this charged-scavenging condition. Eventually, the FPLG prototype has achieved a continuous stable operation of over 1000 cycles with an ignition rate of 100% and a cycle-to-cycle variation of less than 0.8%, produced an indicated power of 2.8 kW with an indicated thermal efficiency of 26% and an electrical power of 2.5 kW with an overall efficiency of 23.2%.

关键词: free piston linear generator (FPLG)     charged scavenging     engine control     misfire     stable operation    

Efficient conversion of lignin to alkylphenols over highly stable inverse spinel MnFeO catalysts

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第8期   页码 1085-1095 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2236-1

摘要: The aromatic properties of lignin make it a promising source of valuable chemicals and fuels. Developing efficient and stable catalysts to effectively convert lignin into high-value chemicals is challenging. In this work, MnFe2O4 spinel catalysts with oxygen-rich vacancies and porous distribution were synthesized by a simple solvothermal process and used to catalyze the depolymerization of lignin in an isopropanol solvent system. The specific surface area was 110.5 m2∙g–1, which substantially increased the active sites for lignin depolymerization compared to Fe3O4. The conversion of lignin reached 94%, and the selectivity of alkylphenols exceeded 90% after 5 h at 250 °C. Underpinned by characterizations, products, and density functional theory analysis, the results showed that the catalytic performance of MnFe2O4 was attributed to the composition of Mn and Fe with strong Mn–O–Fe synergy. In addition, the cycling experiments and characterization showed that the depolymerized lignin on MnFe2O4 has excellent cycling stability. Thus, our work provides valuable insights into the mechanism of lignin catalytic depolymerization and paves the way for the industrial-scale application of this process.

关键词: lignin depolymerization     spinel     catalysts     hydrogenation    

Planar jumping with stable landing through foot orientation design and ankle joint control

Qilong YUAN, I-Ming CHEN

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2012年 第7卷 第2期   页码 100-108 doi: 10.1007/s11465-012-0318-3

摘要:

This paper introduces a method to generate the planar jumping motion for biped robot. In this work, through determining the upper body posture trajectory in the flight phase, the foot landing posture is made to be flat while landing. Together with properly designing the trajectory for local center of gravity and the foot landing velocity, the soft landing trajectory is generated. A controller on the ankle joint is added to avoid significant impact with the ground and stabilize the robot after landing. Jumping motion with stable landing is achieved in a dynamic simulation environment based on this method.

关键词: biped jumping     stable landing control     jumping motion generation    

Engineering the grain boundary: a promising strategy to configure NiCoPO/NiCoP nanowire arrays for ultra-stable

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第8期   页码 1259-1267 doi: 10.1007/s11705-021-2132-0

摘要: NiCoP4O12/NiCoP nanorod-like arrays with tunable grain boundary density and pores were synthesized by the processes composed of hydrothermal and pyrolysis, in which, the electron structure of Ni and Co atoms characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was contemporaneous inverse manipulated. The optimized NiCoP4O12/NiCoP arrays have a high specific capacitance of 507.8 μAh∙cm–2 at 1 mA∙cm–2, and good rate ability of 64.7% retention at 30-folds increased current density. Importantly, an ultra-stable ability, 88.5% of retention after 10000 cycles, was achieved in an asymmetric cell assembled of the NiCoP4O12/NiCoP arrays with activated carbon. In addition, the energy and power densities of an asymmetric cell were higher than those of other work, demonstrating as-prepared NiCoP4O12/NiCoP arrays are promising electrodes for supercapacitors.

关键词: NiCo     array electrode     grain boundary     stability     supercapacitor    

Optimising the oil phases of aluminium hydrogel-stabilised emulsions for stable, safe and efficient vaccine

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第6期   页码 973-984 doi: 10.1007/s11705-021-2123-1

摘要: To increase antibody secretion and dose sparing, squalene-in-water aluminium hydrogel (alum)-stabilised emulsions (ASEs) have been developed, which offer increased surface areas and cellular interactions for higher antigen loading and enhanced immune responses. Nevertheless, the squalene (oil) in previous attempts suffered from limited oxidation resistance, thus, safety and stability were compromised. From a clinical translational perspective, it is imperative to screen the optimal oils for enhanced emulsion adjuvants. Here, because of the varying oleic to linoleic acid ratio, soybean oil, peanut oil, and olive oil were utilised as oil phases in the preparation of aluminium hydrogel-stabilised squalene-in-water emulsions, which were then screened for their stability and immunogenicity. Additionally, the underlying mechanisms of oil phases and emulsion stability were unravelled, which showed that a higher oleic to linoleic acid ratio increased anti-oxidative capabilities but reduced the long-term storage stability owing to the relatively low zeta potential of the prepared droplets. As a result, compared with squalene-in-water ASEs, soybean-in-water ASEs exhibited comparable immune responses and enhanced stability. By optimising the oil phase of the emulsion adjuvants, this work may offer an alternative strategy for safe, stable, and effective emulsion adjuvants.

关键词: pickering emulsion     vaccine adjuvant     alum-stabilised emulsion     oleic to linoleic acid ratio     stability    

Effective and selective separation of perrhenate from acidic wastewater by super-stable, superhydrophobic

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-021-1456-9

摘要:

• A ZnO-biochar hybrid composite was prepared by solvothermal-pyrolysis synthesis.

关键词: Selectivity     Adsorption     Re(VII)     ZnO     Biochar    

Neural Operation Management: A New Avenue for Productive and Military Operations

Qing-guo Ma

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2014年 第1卷 第3期   页码 304-307 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2014039

摘要: An important effect of technological progress is the increasing replacement of manual labor by mental labor in productive and military operations. The variation of the operator’s capabilities in cognition, judgment and decision-making has drawn much attention from operation management researchers. Monitoring and evaluation of these capabilities is especially significant in conditions such as long-time operation, operation with special properties and operation under special circumstances. The military power and economic power are both the key concerns for a nation. The military power depends not only on the weapon system, but also the operators’ capabilities of manipulating the system. Similarly, the economic power is not only dependent on advanced machine system, but also the operational capability of the operators. Thus it has become a hot field of research and practice to monitor and assess the operator’s physiological and psychological states online based on neural measurement technology, and then to give real time intervention, so as to reduce the occurrence of accidents and increase the operation performance.

关键词: operation management     productive operation     military operation     neural operation management     neuromanagement    

g-CN-coated MnO hollow nanorod cathode for stable aqueous Zn-ion batteries

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第2期   页码 217-225 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2214-7

摘要: Aqueous zinc-ion batteries are attracting considerable attention because of their high safety compared with conventional lithium-ion batteries. Manganese-based materials have been widely developed for zinc-ion batteries cathode owning to their low cost, high security and simple preparation. However, the severe volume expansion and poor stability during charging and discharging limit the further development of manganese-based cathodes. Herein, superior α-MnO2@g-C3N4 was successfully prepared for stable zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs) cathode by introducing g-C3N4 nanosheets. Compared with pure α-MnO2, α-MnO2@g-C3N4 has a specific capacity of 298 mAh·g–1 at 0.1 A·g–1. Even at 1 A·g–1, the α-MnO2@g-C3N4 still retains 100 mAh·g–1 (83.4% retention after 5000 cycles), implying its excellent cycling stability. The α-MnO2@g-C3N4-based cathode has the highest energy density (563 Wh·kg–1) and power energy density (2170 W·kg–1). This work provides new avenues for the development of a wider range of cathode materials for ZIBs.

关键词: α-MnO2 hollow nanorods     g-C3N4     heterojunction     aqueous Zn-ion batteries    

Preparation and performance of novel thermal stable composite nanofiltration membrane

WU Chunrui, ZHANG Shouhai, YANG Fajie, YAN Chun, JIAN Xigao

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2008年 第2卷 第4期   页码 402-406 doi: 10.1007/s11705-008-0063-7

摘要: The novel thermal stable composite nanofiltration membranes were prepared through the interfacial polymerization of piperazine and trimesoyl chloride on the poly (phthalazinone ether) ultrafiltration substrate. The effects of polymerization and testing conditions on membrane performance were studied. The surface morphologies of the substrate and the composite membranes were observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The separation properties of membranes for dyes and salts were tested. The composite membranes show good thermal stability. The rejection for NaSO was kept over 96%, while the flux reached 400 L·m·h when it was tested at 1.0 MPa and 80°C. When tested at 1.0 MPa and 60°C, the rejection of the composite membrane for dyes was kept at high level, and the flux reached 180–210 Lm·h, while the rejection for NaCl was lower than 20%.

关键词: electron microscopy     rejection     composite membrane     interfacial polymerization     thermal stability    

δN-stable isotope analysis of NH: An overview on analytical measurements, source sampling and its source

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第6期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-021-1414-6

摘要:

• Challenges in sampling of NH3 sources for d15N analysis are highlighted.

关键词: Aerosol ammonium     Atmospheric gaseous ammonia     Isotope fingerprinting     Isotope-based source apportionment     Ammonia gas-to-particle conversion    

Conversion of CO into CO by high active and stable PdNi nanoparticles supported on a metal-organic framework

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第7期   页码 1139-1148 doi: 10.1007/s11705-021-2111-5

摘要: The solubility of Pd(NO3)2 in water is moderate whereas it is completely soluble in diluted HNO3 solution. Pd/MIL-101(Cr) and Pd/MIL-101-NH2(Cr) were synthesized by aqueous solution of Pd(NO3)2 and Pd(NO3)2 solution in dilute HNO3 and used for CO oxidation reaction. The catalysts synthesized with Pd(NO3)2 solution in dilute HNO3 showed lower activity. The aqueous solution of Pd(NO3)2 was used for synthesis of mono-metal Ni, Pd and bimetallic PdNi nanoparticles with various molar ratios supported on MOF. Pd70Ni30/MIL-101(Cr) catalyst showed higher activity than monometallic counterparts and Pd+ Ni physical mixture due to the strong synergistic effect of PdNi nanoparticles, high distribution of PdNi nanoparticles, and lower dissociation and desorption barriers. Comparison of the catalysts synthesized by MIL-101(Cr) and MIL-101-NH2(Cr) as the supports of metals showed that Pd/MIL-101-NH2(Cr) outperforms Pd/MIL-101-(Cr) because of the higher electron density of Pd resulting from the electron donor ability of the NH2 functional group. However, the same activities were observed for Pd70Ni30/MIL-101(Cr) and Pd70Ni30/MIL-101-NH2(Cr), which is due to a less uniform distribution of Pd nanoparticles in Pd70Ni30/MIL-101-NH2(Cr) originated from amorphization of MIL-101-NH2(Cr) structure during the reduction process. In contrast, Pd70Ni30/MIL-101(Cr) revealed the stable structure and activity during reduction and CO oxidation for a long time.

关键词: CO oxidation     heterogeneous catalysis     metal-organic framework     NH2 functional group     PdNi    

Isolating higher yielding and more stable rice genotypes in stress environments: fine-tuning a selection

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2023521

摘要:

● Score index methods readily discriminate genotypes adapted to a target environment.

关键词: Aerobic rice     breeding selection     drought resilience     production capacity index     resilience capacity index     stress score index     upland    

Benzenesulfonic acid-grafted UIO-66 with improved hydrophobicity as a stable Brønsted acid catalyst

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第10期   页码 1389-1398 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2285-5

摘要: Hydrothermal and catalytic stability of UIO-66 MOFs with defective structures are critical aspects to be considered in their catalytic applications, especially under the conditions involving water, moisture and/or heat. Here, we report a facile strategy to introduce the macromolecular acid group to UIO-66 to improve the stability of the resulting UIO-66−PhSO3H MOF in aqueous phase catalysis. In detail, UIO-66−PhSO3H was obtained by grafting benzenesulfonic acid on the surface of the pristine UIO-66 to introduce the hydrophobicity, as well as the Brønsted acidity, then assessed using catalytic hydrolysis of cyclohexyl acetate (to cyclohexanol) in water. The introduction of hydrophobic molecules to UIO-66 could prevent the material from being attacked by hydroxyl polar molecules effectively, explaining its good structural stability during catalysis. UIO-66−PhSO3H promoted the conversion of cyclohexyl acetate at ca. 87%, and its activity and textural properties were basically intact after the cyclic stability tests. The facile modification strategy can improve the hydrothermal stability of UIO-66 significantly, which can expand its catalytic applications in aqueous systems.

关键词: metal−organic frameworks (MOFs)     UIO-66     hydrolysis of cyclohexyl acetate     hydrophobicity     Brønsted acidity    

Behavior of aqueous stable colloidal nano-C

Jing HUO,Ye YU,Ling GE,Bo ZHANG,Yiliang HE

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第2期   页码 197-205 doi: 10.1007/s11783-014-0624-6

摘要: C , as one of carbon nanomaterials widely used in various fields, could be released into the water environment thus exerting some potential health risks to human beings. This work examined the behavior of aqueous stable colloidal nano-C (nC ) aggregates under different environmental conditions including Polyethylene glycol octylphenol ether (TX100) micelles concentration, pH, and reaction time when exposed to TX100 micelles. Results show that the nC aggregates became more dispersive and restored the capability of generating the singlet oxygen when exposed to TX100 micelles. With the increase of TX100 concentration, smaller average size of nC aggregates was observed in dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis, the fluorescence intensity of TX100 was more quenched by nC aggregates, and the kinetic rate constant of generating the singlet oxygen for nC aggregates was improved. The mean size of nC aggregates in the presence of TX100 had no obvious variations when the pH ranged from 4 to 8. The longer reaction time between nC aggregates and TX100 led to a higher kinetic rate constant of generating the singlet oxygen. Collective data suggest that variations in physicochemical properties of nC aggregates are strongly dependent on the surrounding media under different environmental conditions and directly govern nC ’s transport behavior and potential toxicity.

关键词: nano-C60 (nC60) aggregates     photochemical reactivity     artificial biological membrane    

Catalytic combustion of methane over a highly active and stable NiO/CeO

Xiuhui Huang, Junfeng Li, Jun Wang, Zeqiu Li, Jiayin Xu

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第4期   页码 534-545 doi: 10.1007/s11705-019-1821-4

摘要: In the last decades, many reports dealing with technology for the catalytic combustion of methane (CH ) have been published. Recently, attention has increasingly focused on the synthesis and catalytic activity of nickel oxides. In this paper, a NiO/CeO catalyst with high catalytic performance in methane combustion was synthesized via a facile impregnation method, and its catalytic activity, stability, and water-resistance during CH combustion were investigated. X-ray diffraction, low-temperature N adsorption, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, hydrogen temperature programmed reduction, methane temperature programmed surface reaction, Raman spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, and transmission electron microscope characterization of the catalyst were conducted to determine the origin of its high catalytic activity and stability in detail. The incorporation of NiO was found to enhance the concentration of oxygen vacancies, as well as the activity and amount of surface oxygen. As a result, the mobility of bulk oxygen in CeO was increased. The presence of CeO prevented the aggregation of NiO, enhanced reduction by NiO, and provided more oxygen species for the combustion of CH . The results of a kinetics study indicated that the reaction order was about 1.07 for CH and about 0.10 for O over the NiO/CeO catalyst.

关键词: methane combustion     NiO/CeO2 catalyst     interaction     oxygen vacancy     kinetic study    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

An experimental study of a single-piston free piston linear generator

Jin XIAO, Yingdong CHENG, Jinlong WANG, Chengwei ZHU, Zhen HUANG

期刊论文

Efficient conversion of lignin to alkylphenols over highly stable inverse spinel MnFeO catalysts

期刊论文

Planar jumping with stable landing through foot orientation design and ankle joint control

Qilong YUAN, I-Ming CHEN

期刊论文

Engineering the grain boundary: a promising strategy to configure NiCoPO/NiCoP nanowire arrays for ultra-stable

期刊论文

Optimising the oil phases of aluminium hydrogel-stabilised emulsions for stable, safe and efficient vaccine

期刊论文

Effective and selective separation of perrhenate from acidic wastewater by super-stable, superhydrophobic

期刊论文

Neural Operation Management: A New Avenue for Productive and Military Operations

Qing-guo Ma

期刊论文

g-CN-coated MnO hollow nanorod cathode for stable aqueous Zn-ion batteries

期刊论文

Preparation and performance of novel thermal stable composite nanofiltration membrane

WU Chunrui, ZHANG Shouhai, YANG Fajie, YAN Chun, JIAN Xigao

期刊论文

δN-stable isotope analysis of NH: An overview on analytical measurements, source sampling and its source

期刊论文

Conversion of CO into CO by high active and stable PdNi nanoparticles supported on a metal-organic framework

期刊论文

Isolating higher yielding and more stable rice genotypes in stress environments: fine-tuning a selection

期刊论文

Benzenesulfonic acid-grafted UIO-66 with improved hydrophobicity as a stable Brønsted acid catalyst

期刊论文

Behavior of aqueous stable colloidal nano-C

Jing HUO,Ye YU,Ling GE,Bo ZHANG,Yiliang HE

期刊论文

Catalytic combustion of methane over a highly active and stable NiO/CeO

Xiuhui Huang, Junfeng Li, Jun Wang, Zeqiu Li, Jiayin Xu

期刊论文