More Latest Research

Article  |  2019-12-11

Thermal and Mechanical Properties Optimization of ABO4 Type EuNbO4 By the B-Site Substitution of Ta

Ferroelastic ABO4 type RETaO4 and RENbO4 ceramics (where RE stands for rare earth) are being investigated as promising thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), and the mechanical properties of RETaO4 have been found to be better than those of RENbO4. In this work, B-site substitution of tantalum (Ta) is used to optimize the thermal and mechanical properties of EuNbO4 fabricated through a solid-state reaction (SSR). The crystal structure is clarified by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy; and the surface microstructure is surveyed via scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The Young's modulus and the thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of EuNbO4 are effectively increased; with respective maximum values of 169 GPa and 11.2×10–6 K–1 (at 1200 °C). The thermal conductivity is reduced to 1.52 W·K−1·m−1 (at 700 °C), and the thermal radiation resistance is improved. The relationship between the phonon thermal diffusivity and temperature was established in order to determine the intrinsic phonon thermal conductivity by eliminating the thermal radiation effects. The results indicate that the thermal and mechanical properties of EuNbO4 can be effectually optimized via the B-site substitution of Ta, and that
this proposed material can be applied as a high-temperature structural ceramic in future.

Lin Chen

Perspective  |  2019-11-07

Smart Process Manufacturing for Formulated Products

We outline the smart manufacturing challenges for formulated products, which are typically multicomponent, structured, and multiphase. These challenges predominate in the food, pharmaceuticals, agricultural and specialty chemicals, energy storage and energetic materials, and consumer goods industries, and are driven by fast-changing customer demand and, in some cases, a tight regulatory framework. This paper discusses progress in smart manufacturing—namely, digitalization and the use of large datasets with predictive models and solution-finding algorithms—in these industries. While some progress has been achieved, there is a strong need for more demonstration of model-based tools on realistic problems in order to demonstrate their benefits and highlight any systemic weaknesses.

James Litster

Article  |  2019-12-19

Scenario-based assessment and multi-objective optimization of urban development plan with carrying capacity of water system

Abstract Impact of urban development on water system is assessed with carrying capacity. Impacts on both water resource quantity and environmental quality are involved. Multi-objective optimization revealing system trade-off facilitate the regulation. Efficiency, scale and structure of urban development are regulated in two stages. A roadmap approaching more sustainable development is provided for the case city. Environmental impact assessments and subsequent regulation measures of urban development plans are critical to human progress toward sustainability, since these plans set the scale and structure targets of future socioeconomic development. A three-step methodology for assessing and optimizing an urban development plan focusing on its impacts on the water system was developed. The methodology first predicted the pressure on the water system caused by implementation of the plan under distinct scenarios, then compared the pressure with the carrying capacity threshold to verify the system status; finally, a multi-objective optimization method was used to propose regulation solutions. The methodology enabled evaluation of the water system carrying state, taking socioeconomic development uncertainties into account, and multiple sets of improvement measures under different decisionmaker preferences were generated. The methodology was applied in the case of Zhoushan city in South-east China. The assessment results showed that overloading problems occurred in 11 out of the 13 zones in Zhoushan, with the potential pressure varying from 1.1 to 18.3 times the carrying capacity. As a basic regulation measure, an environmental efficiency upgrade could relieve the overloading in 4 zones and reduce 9%‒63% of the pressure. The optimization of industrial development showed that the pressure could be controlled under the carrying capacity threshold if the planned scale was reduced by 24% and the industrial structure was transformed. Various regulation schemes including a more suitable scale and structure with necessary efficiency standards are provided for decisionmakers that can help the case city approach a more sustainable development pattern.

Yilei Lu

Article  |  2019-12-19

PM2.5 over North China based on MODIS AOD and effect of meteorological elements during 2003‒2015

Abstract The Taihang Mountains was the boundary between high and low pollution areas. There were one high value center for PM2.5 pollution and two low value centers. In 2004, 2009 and after 2013, PM2.5 concentration was relatively low. Over the past 40 years, PM2.5 pollution in North China has become increasingly serious and progressively exposes the densely populated areas to pollutants. However, due to limited ground data, it is challenging to estimate accurate PM2.5 exposure levels, further making it unfavorable for the prediction and prevention of PM2.5 pollutions. This paper therefore uses the mixed effect model to estimate daily PM2.5 concentrations of North China between 2003 and 2015 with ground observation data and MODIS AOD satellite data. The tempo-spatial characteristics of PM2.5 and the influence of meteorological elements on PM2.5 is discussed with EOF and canonical correlation analysis respectively. Results show that overall R2 is 0.36 and the root mean squared predicted error was 30.1 μg/m3 for the model prediction. Our time series analysis showed that, the Taihang Mountains acted as a boundary between the high and low pollution areas in North China; while the northern part of Henan Province, the southern part of Hebei Province and the western part of Shandong Province were the most polluted areas. Although, in 2004, 2009 and dates after 2013, PM2.5 concentrations were relatively low. Meteorological/topography conditions, that include high surface humidity of area in the range of 34°‒40°N and 119°‒124°E, relatively low boundary layer heights, and southerly and easterly winds from the east and north area were common factors attributed to haze in the most polluted area. Overall, the spatial distribution of increasingly concentrated PM2.5 pollution in North China are consistent with the local emission level, unfavorable meteorological conditions and topographic changes.

Youfang Chen

More Focus

  • Intelligent Manufacturing

  • Advanced Materials and Materials Genome

  • Green Chemical Engineering

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