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Review  |  22 Aug 2019

Traditional Chinese Medicine as a Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis: From Empirical Practice to Evidence-Based Therapy

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune condition with an elusive etiology. Conventional and biological disease-modifying drugs sometimes fail or produce only partial responses. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has long been used in China as a treatment for RA and is achieving everincreasing acceptance worldwide. TCM treatments are traditionally guided by the theory of treatment based on TCM syndrome differentiation; however, they remain a matter of empirical practice relying on TCM theories and doctors’ own experience, which places severe restrictions on worldwide TCM application. Nevertheless, TCM is a treasure trove for drug discovery, particularly as a treatment for complicated human conditions. The discoveries of artemisinin as a treatment for malaria and of TCM–arsenic trioxide (As2O3) combination therapy as a treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) are excellent examples of the great value of TCM. Regarding RA treatments, many Chinese medicinal herbs and their formulas, extracts, ingredients, and even single compounds have been used in clinical applications. Several Chinese proprietary medicines (CPMs) derived from TCM formulas or herbal bioactive components, such as the controlled-release tablets of ZhengQingFengTongNing (ZQFTN), tripterygium glycoside tablets, and capsules of total glucosides of peony (TGP), have been included in the National Health Insurance Directory of China, and show comparable therapeutic efficacies to those of western chemical drugs with fewer side effects. As TCM research has advanced, particularly in the use of multidisciplinary technologies, the scientific foundations and characteristics of the use of TCM to treat RA have been revealed, and the quality of TCM treatments have been increasingly enhanced. However, TCM generally lacks sufficient clinical and laboratory data to be consistent with international standards for quality, safety, and efficacy in order to support its application worldwide. Therefore, intensive basic and clinical studies on TCM are required. In particular, investigations that use cutting-edge technologies in analytical chemistry, biology, and biomedical sciences, and the development of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and personalized pragmatic randomized controlled trials (PPRCTs) are necessary. Researchers should also collaborate to advance TCM from empirical practice to evidence-based therapy, thus consistently promoting TCM development and globalization in a vital, beneficial, and contributable manner.

Hu-Dan Pan

Perspective  |  21 Aug 2019

Complexity at Mesoscales: A Common Challenge in Developing Artificial Intelligence

Exploring the physical mechanisms of complex systems and making effective use of them are the keys to dealing with the complexity of the world. The emergence of big data and the enhancement of computing power, in conjunction with the improvement of optimization algorithms, are leading to the development of artificial intelligence (AI) driven by deep learning. However, deep learning fails to reveal the underlying logic and physical connotations of the problems being solved. Mesoscience provides a concept to understand the mechanism of the spatiotemporal multiscale structure of complex systems, and its capability for analyzing complex problems has been validated in different fields. This paper proposes a research paradigm for AI, which introduces the analytical principles of mesoscience into the design of deep learning models. This is done to address the fundamental problem of deep learning models detaching the physical prototype from the problem being solved; the purpose is to promote the sustainable development of AI.

Li Guo

Article  |  05 Dec 2019

Application of 5G Technology in Education Informatization

The popularity of educational informatization and the emergence of smart learning spaces have significantly increased students' demand for personalized, convenient, and diversified learning content. The fifth generation mobile communication (5G) technology, with its characteristics of large bandwidth, ultra-high reliability, ultra-low time delay, large-scale connection of things, is becoming an enabling technology for perfecting the education network and even realizing education modernization. This paper focuses on the application of 5G technology in education informatization. After the analysis of major characteristics of education informatization, this paper analyzes the technical challenges faced by the education network of China, and demonstrates corresponding 5G application scenarios from the aspects of teaching, teaching research, and education management, thereby forming an overall view of education informatization based on 5G technology. By 2035, the 5G technology will be further promoted, which will constantly enrich the connotation and promote the reform of education scenes; and thus it will become the driving force for the innovation in China's education informatization.

Lu Xiangqun

Article  |  05 Dec 2019

Development and Application of Manned Deep Diving Technology

Manned submersible is an important technical means and equipment for deep sea entry, exploration, development, and protection, which represents the development frontier of the submersible technology. In this paper, the development status of the equipment and technology of deep-sea manned submersibles abroad is briefly described, and the development and application of the same in China are then reviewed. The three milestones for the development of deep-sea manned submersible technology in China are mainly introduced. Based on the development experience of manned submersibles named “Jiaolong” and “Deep-sea Warrior”, the deep-sea manned submersible technology system is formed in China. In the range of 4500–7000 m deep-sea diving, China’s manned deep diving technology has been at the international forefront in general, and has independent intellectual property rights. The idea of genealogical development of manned deep diving technology towards the whole ocean depth and the whole sea area has become clear. In the next 15 years, China should focus on consolidating and improving the operation ability, actively expanding the application field, constantly improving the level of intelligence, lightweight, heavy load, and cluster coordination, and carefully building the industrial chain, thus to become a powerful country in manned deep diving technology.

Hu Zhen

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