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Article  |  2021-02-25

Synergic Effect of Reworking for Imperfect Quality Items with the Integration of Multi-Period Delay-in-Payment and Partial Backordering in Global Supply Chains

In intercontinental trade and economics goods are bought from a global supplier. On occasion, the expected lot may include a fraction of defective items. These imperfect items still have worth and can be sold to customers after repair. It is cost-effective and sustainable to rework such items in nearby repair workshops rather than return them. The reworked items can be returned from the workshop to the buyer when shortages are equal to the quantity of imperfect items. In the meantime, the supplier correspondingly deals a multi-period delay-in-payments strategy with purchaser. The entire profit has been maximized with paybacks for interim financing. This study aims to develop a synergic inventory model to get the most profit by making an allowance for reworking, multi-period delay-in-payments policy, and shortages. The findings of the proposed model augment inventory management performance by monitoring cycle time as well as fraction of phase with optimistic inventory for a supply chain. The results demonstrate that profit is smaller if the permitted period given by supplier to buyer is equal to or greater than the cycle time, and profit is greater if the permitted period is smaller than the cycle time. The algebraic method is engaged to make a closed system optimum solution. The mathematical experiment of this study is constructed to provide management insights and tangible practices.
 

Waqas Ahmed ,   Muhammad Moazzam   et al.

Review  |  2021-02-25

Current Developments in the Stable Production of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are considered to be ideal and promising cell sources for various applications such as regenerative medicine and drug screening. However, effective mass production systems for the stable supply of desired numbers of iPSCs are yet to be developed. This review introduces the various approaches that are currently available for stable iPSC production. We start by discussing the limiting factors to be controlled during iPSC culture, such as nutrient supply, waste removal, and oxygen availability. We then introduce recent investigations on iPSC culture systems based on adhesion, suspension, and scaffolds. We also discuss the downstream processes that follow the culture process, such as filling and freezing processes, which limit the production scale due to decreased cell viability during suspension in cryopreservation medium. Finally, we summarize the possibility of the stable mass production of iPSCs and highlight the limitations that remain to be overcome. We suggest that multidisciplinary investigations are essential to understand the different factors that influence cell growth and quality in order to obtain an optimal and stable iPSC mass production system.

Ikki Horiguchi ,   Masahiro Kino-oka  

Article  |  2021-01-26

Future Development of Natural Villages in Rural China Based on the Analysis of Dissipative Structure Theory

Recently, urbanization, economic development, and industrial structure adjustment are decreasing the number of permanent residents in rural areas in China on a yearly basis; the rural population is aging and the natural villages are gradually declining or even dying out. Considering the overall situation of rural natural villages in China, we selected a typical village in Shandong province as the object for field research. This study analyzes the idle situation of rural houses and the population distribution in the rural areas and summarizes the specific characteristics that indicate the decline of natural villages. Subsequently, it also analyzes the underlying reasons for the decline using the dissipative structure theory, and proposes that a new dissipative structure should be established by opening and activating conventional villages, protecting featured villages, and integrating declined villages. Furthermore, the internal management of the updated villages should be improved to increase the cohesion and self-organizing ability of the new system.

Shan Ming ,   Liu Yanqing   et al.

Article  |  2021-01-26

Strategic Path for Energy Revolution in Northwest China in the New Era

Both energy security and climate change are key challenges for China in the New Era. Northwest China, especially the Energy Golden Triangle area and Xinjiang, is playing a significant role in China’s energy supply owing to its rich energy resources. However, protecting the vulnerable ecosystems in this region becomes increasingly challenging; therefore, developing a performance improvement plan for energy revolution becomes urgent in this region. In this article, we first analyze the unique competencies and challenges regarding resource, industry, and location; considering the requirements of energy revolution, we propose that the Northwest China should be established as a national multi-energy integration technology demonstration base, a national coal-to-fuel strategic reserve base, and a national comprehensive energy supply base. As a strategic path for promoting energy revolution in Northwest China, multi-energy integration consists of three main themes and six demonstration measures. The three main themes are the clean and efficient use of fossil resources and coupling substitution, multi-energy complementarity and large-scale application of renewable energy, and the low-carbon and intelligent multi-energy integration. Adopting these measures, a Northwest China approach to energy revolution can be formed that is characterized by multi-power integration and led by energy technology revolution.

Zhu Hanxiong ,   Geng Xiaoying   et al.

Article  |  2021-01-26

Promoting the Construction of Xiongan New Area Through Energy Revolution: General Idea and Implementation Route

Based on the strategic background, positioning, and objectives of the planning and construction of the Xiongan New Area, an analysis model framework is established for the requirements for energy revolution during the planning and construction of this area. We conclude that energy revolution can actively promote the construction of the Xiongan New Area. Specifically, energy technology revolution can aid the Xiongan New Area to become a global energy innovation center; the energy operation mode of this area can be reformed through energy system revolution; the planning and construction requirements of the Xiongan New Area can be satisfied through energy consumption revolution; and a safe and efficient energy supply system can be ensured through energy supply revolution. Furthermore, an urban energy supply system that is green, safe, efficient, smart-friendly, and future-leading can be created in the Xiongan New Area through the energy revolution, particularly through key projects regarding energy integrated operation systems, energy Internet, green and smart transportation systems, ultra-low-energy buildings, and energy saving and emission reduction.

Ma Lianxiang ,   Jiang Ming   et al.

Article  |  2021-01-26

Thoughts and Countermeasures on Promoting Energy Revolution in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Region

 Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei coordinated development is a major national strategy of China. This study first analyzes the evolution process of energy production, consumption, and structure proportion in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei, indicating that the overall energy supply in this region is less than consumption; although the region is rich in renewable energy resources, its energy consumption is mainly fossil energies and the overall energy efficiency requires further improvement. Since the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei coordinated development strategy was proposed six years ago, the ecological environment in this region has continuously improved, but the situation remains grim. As energy is the power source and blood of economic and social development and it is also closely related to the environment, the promotion of energy revolution becomes imperative. To promote energy revolution within the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, energy efficiency should be further improved to control the total amount of energy consumption; the energy supply structure should be optimized to provide a solid material foundation for the coordinated development; the energy technology revolution should be promoted to create a new driving force for economic growth; the existing energy system should be revolutionized to improve the market environment for economic and social development; and the rural energy revolution should be accelerated to strengthen the prevention of point source pollution in rural areas.

Yan Xiaohui ,   Gao Dan   et al.

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