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Article  |  2021-03-31

Development of a 50K SNP Array for Japanese Flounder and Its Application in Genomic Selection for Disease Resistance

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays are a powerful genotyping tool used in genetic research and genomic breeding programs. Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is an economically-important aquaculture flatfish in many countries. However, the lack of high-efficient genotyping tools has impeded the genomic breeding programs for Japanese flounder. We developed a 50K Japanese flounder SNP array, "Yuxin No. 1," and report its utility in genomic selection (GS) for disease resistance to bacterial pathogens. We screened more than 42.2 million SNPs from the whole-genome resequencing data of 1099 individuals and selected 48 697 SNPs that were evenly distributed across the genome to anchor the array with Affymetrix Axiom genotyping technology. Evaluation of the array performance with 168 fish showed that 74.7% of the loci were successfully genotyped with high call rates (> 98%) and that the polymorphic SNPs had good cluster separations. More than 85% of the SNPs were concordant with SNPs obtained from the whole-genome resequencing data. To validate "Yuxin No. 1" for GS, the arrayed genotyping data of 27 individuals from a candidate population and 931 individuals from a reference population were used to calculate the genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) for disease resistance to Edwardsiella tarda. There was a 21.2% relative increase in the accuracy of GEBV using the weighted genomic best linear unbiased prediction (wGBLUP), compared to traditional pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction (ABLUP), suggesting good performance of the "Yuxin No. 1" SNP array for GS. In summary, we developed the "Yuxin No. 1" 50K SNP array, which provides a useful platform for high-quality genotyping that may be beneficial to the genomic selective breeding of Japanese flounder.

Qian Zhou ,   Ya-dong Chen   et al.

Review  |  2021-03-31

Fundamentals and Processes of Fluid Pressure Forming Technology for Complex Thin-Walled Components

A new generation of fluid pressure forming technology has been developed for the three typical structures of tubes, sheets, and shells, and hard-to-deform material components that are urgently needed for aerospace, aircraft, automobile, and high-speed train industries. In this paper, an overall review is introduced on the state of the art in fundamentals and processes for lower-pressure hydroforming of tubular components, double-sided pressure hydroforming of sheet components, die-less hydroforming of ellipsoidal shells, and dual hardening hot medium forming of hard-to-deform materials. Particular attention is paid to deformation behavior, stress state adjustment, defect prevention, and typical applications. In addition, future development directions of fluid pressure forming technology are discussed, including hyper lower-loading forming for ultra-large non-uniform components, precision forming for intermetallic compound and high-entropy alloy components, intelligent process and equipment, and precise finite element simulation of inhomogeneous and strong anisotropic thin shells.

Shijian Yuan  

Article  |  2021-04-06

PORK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN CHINA: A REVIEW OF THEIR DEVELOPMENT, CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS IN GREEN PRODUCTION

•Large-scale industrial pork production enterprises are preferred in China in the future.

•Challenges to green pork production include emissions, feed shortage and residues.

•Potential solutions to green production include precise feeding and manure recycling.

 

This paper reviews the changes in pork production in China, the largest pork producing and consuming nation in the world. The pork sector in China has changed dramatically since the 1990s, with large-scale intensive pork production systems replacing the former, exclusively family-based pork production systems. Modern breeding, feeding, vaccinating, and management technologies are widely used now. However, smallholders still account for a large proportion of the total production. The intensification and specialization of the pork sector is expected to continue in the future, but there is increasing awareness and pressure to develop more environmentally-sustainable production systems. The relative shortage of domestically produced feed, the low utilization efficiency of feed ingredients, the large emissions of nitrogen and phosphorus to the environment, the high use of antibiotics, and the presence of residual metals in manures are very large challenges for the pork sector nowadays. To solve these problems, techniques including new feed resource utilization, precise feeding, low-protein diets, alternatives to antibiotics and increased manure recycling are all important topics and research directions today. With new techniques and management approaches, it is possible to build more sustainable pork production systems in China.

 

Article  |  2021-03-24

Development of Industrial Internet Security Technology in China

As the new-generation information technology, such as cloud computing and big data, integrates in depth with traditionalindustrial operation technologies, the industrial Internet becomes a new driving force for the digital transformation of industrialenterprises. Meanwhile, industrial Internet security problems have increased; therefore, improving the technological capabilities forguaranteeing industrial Internet security becomes the prerequisite for the high-quality development of the industrial Internet. In thisstudy, we first analyze the demand for industrial Internet development and summarize the development status of industrial Internetsecurity protection, evaluation, and monitoring technologies. Subsequently, we investigate the development trend, technologicaldifficulties, and challenges for the industrial Internet security technology, and propose the key technologies and their developmentapproaches. To promote the safe and healthy development of industrial Internet in China, the industrial Internet security technologiesneed to be customized in accordance with industrial characteristics and scenarios, and closely integrate with new technologies such asbig data and AI, to achieve active defense and create endogenous security capabilities.

Dong Yue ,   Wang Zhiqin   et al.

Article  |  2021-03-23

Construction and Implementation Path for Industrial Internet Standards System in China

Industrial Internet links the new-generation information technology and advanced industries; therefore, industrial Internet standardization is crucial for both the innovative development of the industrial Internet and the effective connection of all links in the industrial chain. In this study, we review the foundation work conducted in China and abroad for the standardization of the industrial Internet in fields such as industrial network, big data, platform, and information security, and summarize the problems faced by industrial Internet standardization. Moreover, a framework of the industrial Internet standards system is proposed, consisting of basic and common, network, data, platform, and security standards. An implementation path for industrial Internet standardization is proposed and demonstrated, focusing on common demand in key areas such as reference architecture construction; interconnectivity in data circulation, processing, and use; monitoring control and decision optimization; and network security. Advancing the industrial Internet standards system requires accelerating breakthroughs for key industrial Internet standards, strengthening the application and promotion of standards, and cultivate and improve the industrial ecology.

Hu Lin ,   Yang Jianjun   et al.

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