Fault is a common geological structure that has been revealed in the process of underground coal excavation and mining. The nature of its discontinuous structure controls the deformation, damage, and mechanics of the coal or rock mass. The interaction between this discontinuous structure and mining activities is a key factor that dominates fault reactivation and the coal burst it can induce. This paper first summarizes investigations into the relationships between coal mining layouts and fault occurrences, along with relevant conceptual models for fault reactivation. Subsequently, it proposes mechanisms of fault reactivation and its induced coal burst based on the superposition of static and dynamic stresses, which include two kinds of fault reactivations from: mining-induced quasi-static stress (FRMSS)-dominated and seismic-based dynamic stress (FRSDS)-dominated. These two kinds of fault reactivations are then validated by the results of experimental investigations, numerical modeling, and in situ microseismic monitoring. On this basis, monitoring methods and prevention strategies for fault-induced coal burst are discussed and recommended. The results show that fault-induced coal burst is triggered by the superposition of high static stress in the fault pillar and dynamic stress from fault reactivation. High static stress comes from the interaction of the fault and the roof structure, and dynamic stress can be ascribed to FRMSS and FRSDS. The results in this paper could be of great significance in guiding the monitoring and prevention of fault-induced coal bursts.
In the current shift from conventional fossil-fuel-based materials to renewable energy, ecofriendly materials have attracted extensive research interest due to their sustainability and biodegradable properties. The integration of sustainable materials in electronics provides industrial benefits from wasted bio-origin resources and preserves the environment. This review covers the use of sustainable materials as components in organic electronics, such as substrates, insulators, semiconductors, and conductors. We hope this review will stimulate interest in the potential and practical applications of sustainable materials for green and sustainable industry.
A novel method has been successfully developed for the facile and efficient removal of organic micropollutants (OMP) from water based on novel functional capsules encapsulating molecular-recognizable nanogels. The functional capsules are composed of ultrathin calcium alginate (Ca-Alg) hydrogel shells as semipermeable membranes and encapsulated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid-g-mono-
(6-ethanediamine-6-deoxy)-β-cyclodextrin) (PNCD) nanogels with β-cyclodextrin (CD) moieties as OMP capturers. The semipermeable membranes of the capsules enable the free transfer of OMP and water molecules across the capsule shells, but confine the encapsulated PNCD nanogels within the capsules. Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical that is released from many plastic water containers, was chosen as a model OMP molecule in this study. Based on the host–guest recognition complexation, the CD moieties in the PNCD nanogels can efficiently capture BPA molecules. Thus, the facile and efficient removal of BPA from water can be achieved by immersing the proposed functional capsules into BPAcontaining aqueous solutions and then simply removing them, which is easily done due to the capsules’ characteristically large size of up to several millimeters. The kinetics of adsorption of BPA molecules by the capsules is well described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the isothermal adsorption thermodynamics align well with the Freundlich and Langmuir isothermal adsorption models. The regeneration of capsules can be achieved simply by washing them with water at temperatures above the volume phase transition temperature of the PNCD nanogels. Thus, the proposed functional capsules encapsulating molecular-recognizable nanogels provide a novel strategy for the facile and efficient removal of OMP from water.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which has a global prevalence of 20%–33%, has become the main cause of chronic liver disease. Except for lifestyle medication, no definitive medical treatment has been established so far, making it urgent to find effective strategies for the treatment of NAFLD. With the identification of the significant role played by the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, studies on probiotics for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD are increasing in number. Bacteria from the Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genera constitute the most widely used traditional probiotics. More recently, emerging next-generation probiotics (NGPs) such as Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii have also gained attention due to their potential as therapeutic options for the treatment of NAFLD. This review provides an overview of the effects of oral administration of traditional probiotics and NGPs on the development and progress of NAFLD. The mechanisms by which probiotics directly or indirectly affect the disease are illustrated, based on the most recent animal and clinical studies. Although numerous studies have been published on this topic, further research is required to comprehensively understand the specific underlying mechanisms among probiotics, gut microbiota, and NAFLD, and additional large-scale clinical trials are required to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of probiotics for the treatment of NAFLD, as well as the safety of probiotics in the human body.