Due to the implementation of directly observed treatment strategy (DOTS), China has made a significant achievement in tackling the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in the 1990s. However, only half of regions in China met or exceeded the 85% rate of treatment success target. The aim of the present study is to summarize the treatment outcomes of smear-positive pulmonary TB in the mainland of China in the past decade using meta-analysis based on systematic review of published observational studies. A total of 50 eligible articles (58 studies) were identified and included in this study. The summarized treatment success rates were 93.9% (95% CI, 92.8%–94.7%) for new cases and 85.4% (95% CI, 83.0%–87.6%) for previously treated cases, and the summarized cured rate were 92.2% (95% CI, 90.9%–93.3%) and 81.2% (95% CI, 79.1%–83.1%), respectively. A remarkable increase of rates for treatment success and cure was observed in the 1990s. After 2000, the summarized treatment outcomes were tending towards stability. In addition, geographic areas, type of the data and administrative level of the hospital were also found to influence the estimates of the treatment outcomes. Results of the present study clearly show, in general, that the pulmonary TB treatment achieved significant success in the past decade in the mainland of China. However, it needs to be further strengthened in the central and west areas.